The use of molecular techniques such as DNA typing has transformed epidemiologic investigation by making it possible to trace precisely the path taken by a specific strain of an infectious pathogen, such as the gonococcus, as it passes from one host to another. DNA/RNA typing is also an essential part of genetic epidemiology; it can help to identify cancer-prone family lineages, for example. Molecular techniques are used in cancer epidemiology to identify precancerous changes in studies of environmentally and occupationally induced cancers. In short, molecular methods are a powerful tool in many aspects of observational and analytic epidemiology.
John M. Last
(see also: Cancer; Contagion; Epidemiology )
"Molecular Epidemiology." Encyclopedia of Public Health. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/molecular-epidemiology
"Molecular Epidemiology." Encyclopedia of Public Health. . Retrieved August 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/molecular-epidemiology
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.