Diphtheria vaccine is a toxoid prepared by inactivating (with formaldehyde) the externally released toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the causative agent of diphtheria. Administration of three or more doses of diphtheria toxoid at intervals of six weeks or longer induces circulating antibodies that will protect against the toxic effects of diphtheria for several years. These toxic effects include damage to the nervous system or to the heart. Booster doses at intervals of ten years will maintain protective levels of circulating antibodies. Because the vaccine does not contain antigens from the bacterium itself, it will not prevent colonization or infection by C. diphtheriae. Diphtheria toxoid is commonly combined with tetanus toxoid and pertussis vaccine as the "DTP" vaccine. All countries in the world recommend vaccination of all infants with diphtheria toxoid. The primary adverse effects associated with diphtheria toxoid are local reactions at the site of injection.
Alan R. Hinman
(see also: Child Health Services; Communicable Disease Control; Diphtheria; Immunizations )
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1991). "Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis: Recommendations for Vaccine Use and Other Preventive Measures. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 40:1–28.
"Diphtheria Vaccine." Encyclopedia of Public Health. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 13, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/diphtheria-vaccine
"Diphtheria Vaccine." Encyclopedia of Public Health. . Retrieved December 13, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/diphtheria-vaccine
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.