Pneumatic architecture (heralded by the design of balloons and airships) has suggested a way by which masts, etc., can be eschewed, air pressure alone supporting a membrane-enve-lope, covering the required volume. Separate chambers inflated with air form one type, and a membrane supported by air pressure kept constant by a continuous supply of air form another. Pneumatic structures, introduced from the USA to Europe in the 1950s, were developed by Otto, who further experimented with cable-reinforced air-supported membranes, offering many possibilities for enclosing space.
Architectural Association, 1/2 (Apr. 1969), 56–74;
Anno Domini, xxxviii/4 (Apr. 1968), 179–82;
Architectural Review, cxxxiv/801 (Nov. 1963), 324–34;
H. Berger (1996);
Drew (1976, 1979);
F. Otto (1954, 1961, 1963);
Scheuermann et al. (1996);
Jane Turner (1996)
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