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evapotranspiration

evapotranspiration Combined term for water lost as vapour from a soil or open water surface (evaporation) and water lost from the surface of a plant, mainly via the stomata (transpiration). The combined term is often used since in practice it is very difficult to distinguish water vapour from these two sources in water-balance and atmospheric studies.

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evapotranspiration

evapotranspiration A combined term for water lost as vapour from a soil or open water surface (evaporation) and water lost from the surface of a plant, mainly via the stomata (transpiration). The combined term is used since in practice it is very difficult to distinguish water vapour from these two sources in water-balance and atmospheric studies.

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"evapotranspiration." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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evapotranspiration

evapotranspiration A combined term for water lost as vapour from a soil or open water surface (evaporation) and water lost from the surface of a plant, mainly via the stomata (transpiration). The combined term is used since in practice it is very difficult to distinguish water vapour from these two sources in water-balance and atmospheric studies.

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"evapotranspiration." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Evapotranspiration

Evapotranspiration

Evapotranspiration refers to the vaporization of water from both non-living and living surfaces on a landscape. The word evapotranspiration is a composite of evaporation and transpiration. Evaporation is the vaporization of water from surface waters such as lakes, rivers, and streams, from moist soil and rocks, and any other substrates that are non-living. Transpiration is the vaporization of water from any moist living surface, such as plant foliage or the body or lung surfaces of animals.

Evapotranspiration is an important component of Earths energy budget, accounting for a substantial part of the physical dissipation of absorbed solar radiation. In any moist ecosystem, air and surface temperatures would be much warmer than they actually are if evapotranspiration was not operating to consume thermal energy during the vaporization of water. Because of vigorous transpiration of water in moist forests during the day, air in and beneath the canopy is considerably cooler than it would be if this process did not occur.

Evapotranspiration from forests has a large influence on the water budget, both globally and locally. In the absence of forest transpiration, an equivalent quantity of water would have to leave the watershed as seepage to groundwater and streamflow. In temperate forests, evapotranspiration typically accounts for 10-40% of the total input of water by precipitation. However, there is a distinct seasonality in the patterns of evapotranspiration from forests. In a temperate region, evapotranspiration is largest during the growing season, when air temperatures are highest and the amount of plant foliage is at its annual maximum. During this season, evapotranspiration rates are often larger than the inputs of water by rainfall, and as a result groundwater is depleted, and sometimes the surface flow of forest streams disappears. Evapotranspiration is very small during the winter because of low temperatures, although some direct vaporization of water from snow or ice to vapor does occur, a process known as sublimation. Evapotranspiration is also relatively small during the springtime, because deciduous trees do not yet have foliage, and air temperatures are relatively cool.

The disturbance of forests disrupts their capacity to sustain evapotranspiration, by reducing the amount of foliage in the canopy. Consequently, clearcutting and wildfire often lead to an increase in streamflow, and sometimes to an increase in height of the water table. In general, the increase in streamflow is roughly proportional to the fraction of total foliage that is removed. In the first year after clear-cutting an entire watershed, the increase in streamflow can be as large as 40%, but most of this effect rapidly diminishes as vegetation re-grows after the disturbance.

See also Energy budgets.

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Evapotranspiration

Evapotranspiration

Evapotranspiration is a key part of the hydrologic cycle . Some water evaporates directly from soils and water bodies, but much is returned to the atmosphere by transpiration (a word combining transport and evaporation) from plants via openings in the leaves called stomata. Within the same climates, forests and lakes yield about the same amount of water vapor. The amount of evapotranspiration is dependent on energy inputs of heat, wind, humidity, and the amount of stored soil water. In climate studies this term is used to indicate levels of surplus or deficit in water budgets. Aridity may be defined as an excess of potential evapotranspiration over actual precipitation, while in humid regions the amount of runoff correlates well with the surplus of precipitation over evapotranspiration.

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Evapotranspiration

Evapotranspiration

Evapotranspiration refers to the vaporization of water from both non-living and living surfaces on a landscape. Evapotranspiration is a composite of two words: evaporation and transpiration . Evaporation refers to the vaporization of water from surface waters such as lakes, rivers , and streams, from moist soil and rocks , and any other substrates that are non-living. Transpiration refers to the vaporization of water from any moist living surface, such as plant foliage, and the body or lung surfaces of animals.

Evapotranspiration is an important component of Earth's energy budget, accounting for a substantial part of the physical dissipation of absorbed solar radiation . In any moist ecosystem , air and surface temperatures would be much warmer than they actually are, if evapotranspiration was not operating to consume thermal energy during the vaporization of water. Because of vigorous transpiration of water in moist forests during the day, air in and beneath the canopy is considerably cooler than it would be if this process did not occur.

Evapotranspiration from forests has a large influence on the water budget, both globally and locally. In the absence of forest transpiration, an equivalent quantity of water would have to leave the watershed as seepage to groundwater and streamflow. In temperate forests, evapotranspiration typically accounts for 10-40% of the total input of water by precipitation . However, there is a distinct seasonality in the patterns of evapotranspiration from forests. In a temperate region, evapotranspiration is largest during the growing season, when air temperatures are highest and the amount of plant foliage is at its annual maximum. During this season, evapotranspiration rates are often larger than the inputs of water by rainfall, and as a result groundwater is depleted, and sometimes the surface flow of forest streams disappears. Evapotranspiration is very small during the winter because of low temperatures, although some direct vaporization of water from snow or ice to vapor does occur, a process known as sublimation. Evapotranspiration is also relatively small during the springtime, because deciduous trees do not yet have foliage, and air temperatures are relatively cool.

The disturbance of forests disrupts their capacity to sustain evapotranspiration, by reducing the amount of foliage in the canopy. Consequently, clearcutting and wildfire often lead to an increase in streamflow, and sometimes to an increase in height of the water table. In general, the increase in streamflow is roughly proportional to the fraction of total foliage that is removed. In the first year after clear-cutting an entire watershed, the increase in stream-flow can be as large as 40%, but most of this effect rapidly diminishes as vegetation re-grows after the disturbance.

See also Energy budgets.

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"Evapotranspiration." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Evapotranspiration." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 17, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/evapotranspiration-0

"Evapotranspiration." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. . Retrieved November 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/evapotranspiration-0

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Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

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Notes:
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