paper tape I/O
Early tape readers operated at about 10 characters per second (cps) by moving the tape in discrete steps, and sensed the holes by pressing a row of pins against the tape. The next generation of machines moved the tape continuously and sensed the holes via star-shaped wheels that rotated only when the points engaged a punched hole. Photoelectric sensing allowed speeds of up to 1500 cps to be achieved by 1975. There have been higher-speed readers but they were not able to stop within a character pitch. Tape punches as fast as 300 cps have been available but 110 cps was the more usual speed for volume output.
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