Mainstreaming is the original term used for the requirement under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that children with disabilities be educated in the least restrictive environment (LRE). Under IDEA, states must assure that, to the maximum extent appropriate, children ages three to twenty-one who have disabilities have access to the general education curriculum and are educated with children without disabilities (for infants and toddlers, early intervention services must be provided in natural environments where age peers are typically found).
The term "mainstreaming" commonly refers to the integration of a child with a disability in regular education settings for part of the school day. As legal and social interpretations of IDEA have evolved, the term "mainstreaming" has been superceded by the term "inclusion," reflecting a new understanding of LRE that presumes full participation of children with disabilities in regular education settings while ensuring continuum of participation options based on a child's educational and social needs.
Accardo, Pasquale J., and Barbara Y. Whitman, eds. Dictionary of Developmental Disabilities Terminology. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes, 1996.
Erwin, Elizabeth J., ed. "The Promise and Challenge of Supporting All Children in Natural Environments." Putting Children First: Visions for a Brighter Future for Young Children and Their Families. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes, 1996.
Hocutt, Anne M. "Effectiveness of Special Education: Is Placement a Critical Factor?" The Future of Children vol. 6, no. 1 (1996):77-99.
Rogers, Joy. "The Inclusion Revolution." In Phi Delta Kappa Center for Evaluation, Development, and Research [web site]. Research Bulletin no. 11, May 1993. Available from http://www.pdkintl.org/edres/resbul11.htm: INTERNET.
Turnbull, H. Rutherford III, and Ann P. Turnbull. "Least Restrictive Appropriate Educational Placement." In Free Appropriate Public Education: The Law and Children with Disabilities. Denver: Love Publishing, 2000.
"Mainstreaming." Child Development. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 15, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/children/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/mainstreaming
"Mainstreaming." Child Development. . Retrieved November 15, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/children/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/mainstreaming
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.