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nephroscope (nef-roh-skohp) n. an instrument (see endoscope) that is used for examining the interior of the kidney (nephroscopy). It is usually passed into the renal pelvis through a track from the skin surface after needle nephrostomy and dilatation of the tract over a guide wire. The nephroscope allows the passage of instruments under direct vision to remove calculi (see nephrolithotomy) or disintegrate them by ultrasound probes or electrohydraulic shock waves (see lithotripsy).