Lockwood, Lewis 1930-
LOCKWOOD, Lewis 1930-
PERSONAL: Born December 16, 1930, in New York, NY; son of Gerald and Madeline (Wartell) Lewis; married Doris Hoffman, December 26, 1953; children: Alison, Daniel. Education: Queens College, B.A., 1952; Princeton University, M.F.A., 1955, Ph.D., 1960.
CAREER: Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, music professor, 1958-80; Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, music professor, 1980-90; International Beethoven Festival-Conference, co-director. Military service: U.S. Seventh Army Symphony, cellist, 1957-58.
MEMBER: American Academy of Arts and Sciences, member, 1984—; American Musicological Society, president, 1987-88.
AWARDS, HONORS: Fulbright Award for study in Italy, 1955-56; National Endowment for Humanities, Senior Fellow, 1973-74, 1984-85; Guggenheim fellow-ship, 1977-78; Einstein Award, 1971; Kindeley Award, 1985; Universita degli Studi in Ferrara, honorary doctorate, 1991; ASCAP-Deems Taylor Award, for Beethoven: Studies in the Creative Process, 1993; nominated for Pulitzer Prize for Biography, 2003.
The Counter-Reformation and the Sacred Music of Vincenzo Ruffo, Princeton University Press (Princeton, NJ), 1960.
Music in Renaissance Ferrara, 1400-1505: The Creation of a Musical Center in the Fifteenth Century, Harvard University Press (Cambridge, MA), 1984.
Beethoven: Studies in the Creative Process, Harvard University Press (Cambridge, MA), 1992.
Beethoven: The Music and the Life, Norton (New York, NY), 2002.
Pope Marcellus Mass: An Authoritative Score, Backgrounds and Sources, History and Analysis, Views and Comments, Norton (New York, NY), 1975.
(With Phyllis Benjamin) Beethoven Essays: Studies in Honor of Elliot Forbes, Harvard University Department of Music (Cambridge, MA), 1984.
(With Edward Roesner) Essays in Musicology: A Tribute to Alvin Johnson, American Musicological Society (Philadelphia, PA), 1990.
(With Christopher Reynolds and James Webster) Beethoven Forum 1, University of Nebraska Press (Lincoln, NE), 1992.
(With James Webster) Beethoven Forum 4, University of Nebraska Press (Lincoln, NE), 1996.
(With James Webster) Beethoven Forum 5, University of Nebraska Press (Lincoln, NE), 1996.
(With Christopher Reynolds and Elaine R. Sisman) Beethoven Forum 7, University of Nebraska Press (Lincoln, NE), 1999.
SIDELIGHTS: Lewis Lockwood, professor emeritus at Harvard University, is a renowned musicologist and a leading scholar on the life and music of Beethoven. In the course of over four decades of teaching music at both Princeton and Harvard universities, Lockwood has written and edited several noted books that critics have praised for their clarity and, as stated by a Kirkus reviewer, for Lockwood's "remarkable ability to describe music in words."
As an authority on Beethoven, Lockwood has written several important books as well as editing many collections of essays concerning the German composer. Scholarship on Beethoven is extensive, and, as Denis Matthews in his critique of Lockwood's Beethoven Essays: Studies in Honor of Elliot Forbes, 1984, for the Times Literary Supplement, pointed out: "It may surprise many readers that there are still a number of untapped, or untabulated, sources of information about the most copiously documented of all composers." This may or may not be the case, but as critics are quick to demonstrate, due to Lockwood's keen insights and detailed research, new facts and observations about Beethoven's life and work continue to come to the surface, shining new light upon the great master. In this particular collection, Lockwood honors the scholarship of his own teacher, Elliot Forbes, also a scholar on the works of Beethoven. Forbes is noted for having revised Alexander Wheelock Thayer's Life of Beethoven, another classic study. In reference to Lockwood's Beethoven Essays, Richard Kramer for the publication Notes commented that this collection offered a "broad spectrum of views and voice" and that readers "who delight in bold juxtapositions will find much pleasure here."
Lockwood has also edited a series of published forums on Beethoven, beginning with his Beethoven Forum 1 published in 1992. In this first collection, readers will find ten articles and one review written by the leading scholars of Beethoven. Commenting on this collection, M. N. Cheng, writing for Choice described the book as "thought-provoking and provocative." The works on which the contributors focus include Beethoven's Sonata Op. 110, Quartet Op. 130, "Waldstein Sonata," and his Ninth Symphony, among others. Beethoven Forum 4, 1996, is a bit more conservative, according to reviewer Daniel K. L. Chua, writing for Music and Letters, but the collection remains enjoyable. Chua wrote: "For those who wish to sit back and enjoy some good editing, solid scholarship and beautiful typography . . . Beethoven Forum 4 will not disappoint." Included in this collection are essays on Beethoven's third movement of the "Pastoral Symphony," and analysis of his "Tempest Sonata", as well as an exploration by William Rothstein on Beethoven's metrical ambiguity.
In 1992 Lockwood authored the book Beethoven: Studies in the Creative Process, which Times Literary Supplement reviewer Paul Griffiths called "a collection of masterly essays." Particularly enjoyable for Charles Rosen, writing for the New York Review of Books, is Lockwood's study of Beethoven's "Eroica Symphony", for which Lockwood's work, according to Rosen, went "farther than any other work I know to show how Beethoven mapped out and controlled a large-scale form." Lockwood's narrative on Beethoven's creative process also includes a close look at the mundane details of living that plague the composer, pulling him away, time after time, from his writing. These details include the physical torment of having to hand-write his compositions, as well as Beethoven's publishers not being able to fully appreciate the extreme efforts and significance of Beethoven's insistence in lack of printing errors in the final texts.
Of particular interest to Paul Driver of the London Review of Books was Lockwood's "dazzling though demanding analysis of the autograph first movement of the Opus 69 Cello Sonata." This work is one of the few of Beethoven's autograph pieces that have survived intact. Driver complimented Lockwood's reproduction of this work by stating: "His decipherment of the manuscript is a diplomatic . . . triumph," and "his ability to interpret the result, to follow Beethoven's moment-by-moment creative track seems at times miraculous."
In 2002 Lockwood presented yet another study of Beethoven in his Beethoven: The Music and the Life, which a writer for Kirkus Reviews called "an outstanding new survey of the great composer's life and works." In this study, Lockwood looks at the three different phases of Beethoven's creative life, with an emphasis on Beethoven's musical development. Concerning the music, a reviewer for Publishers Weekly observed, that Lockwood had "many fine insights." This reviewer noted specifically Lockwood's examination of Beethoven's "very conscious and determined development of his skills." Beethoven's early period was heavily influenced by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) and the later works of Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809). During his early years, Beethoven gladly took on the role of being the "next Mozart." It was in his middle years, though, that Beethoven began branching out, moving away from the old style and trying to create his own. He became more creative as he searched for new musical forms and harmonies. It was during these middle years that he wrote many of his piano sonatas and symphonies. The third period of his development took on a more romantic bent, and his pieces became grander in scope. Library Journal's Timothy J. McGee praised Lockwood's study, which "offers a new and authoritative interpretation of a prodigiously gifted and complex man and artist."
Beethoven: The Music and the Life also contains a historic perspective, as Lockwood demonstrates how the French Revolution and Napoleon's rise to power affected Beethoven's work. There is also a discussion of the aesthetic and philosophical influences that were popular during Beethoven's time. By relying on the composer's autograph manuscripts and his sketchbooks, Lockwood also provides insights into Beethoven's compositional methods. All-important compositions are discussed, but not in a voice that is too technical to be appreciated only by other musicologists. Most reviewers have found that Lockwood has written a very accessible book for any one interested in Beethoven.
BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL SOURCES:
Owens, Jessie Ann and Anthony M. Cummings, editors, Music in Renaissance Cities and Courts: Studies in Honor of Lewis Lockwood, Harmonie Park Press (Warren, MI), 1997.
American Historical Review, December, 1985, Charles L. Stinger, review of Music in Renaissance Ferrara 1400-1505: The Creating of a Musical Centre in the Fifteenth Century, pp. 1227-1228.
Booklist, October 15, 2002, Alan Hirsch, review of Beethoven: The Music and the Life, p. 375.
Choice, July, 1985, A. G. Spiro, review of Music in Renaissance Ferrara, 1400-1505: The Creation of a Musical Center in the Fifteen Century., p. 1643; April, 1993, M. N. H. Cheng, review of Beethoven Forum 1, p. 1322.
Journal of Modern History, September, 1986, Charles M. Rosenberg, review of Music in Renaissance Ferrara 1400-1505, pp. 740-742.
Kirkus Reviews, August 15, 2002, review of Beethoven: The Music and the Life, p. 1199.
Library Journal, September 15, 2002, Timothy J. Mc-Gee, review of Beethoven: The Music and the Life, p. 64.
London Review of Books, April 8, 1993, Paul Driver, review of Beethoven: Studies in the Creative Process, pp. 22-23.
Music and Letters, August, 1993, Nicholas Marston, review of Beethoven: Studies in the Creative Process, pp. 446-448; February, 1994, F. W. Sternfeld, review of Beethoven Forum 1, pp. 92-94; August, 1997, Daniel K. L. Chua, review of Beethoven Forum 4, pp. 431-432; August, 2001, Barry Cooper, review of Beethoven Forum 7, pp. 456-459.
New York Review of Books, June 23, 1994, Charles Rosen, review of Beethoven: Studies in the Creative Process, pp. 55-62.
New York Times, November 24, 2002, James R. Oestreich, review of Beethoven: The Music and the Life, p. 33.
Notes, December, 1971, Denis Stevens, review of The Counter-Reformation and the Masses of Vincenzo Ruffo, pp. 217-220; June, 1986, Richard Kramer, review of Beethoven Essays: Studies in Honor of Elliot Forbes, pp. 773-775; September, 1993, Ellen S. Beebe, review of Essays in Musicology: A Tribute to Alvin Johnson, pp. 120-122; December, 1993, Geoffrey Block, review of Beethoven: Studies in the Creative Process, pp. 571-573; March, 1994, Geoffrey Block, review of Beethoven Forum 1, pp. 959-961; June, 2000, James Parsons, review of Beethoven Forum 7, p. 944.
Publishers Weekly, August 26, 2002, review of Beethoven: The Music and the Life, p. 52.
Times Literary Supplement, April 12, 1985, Denis Stevens, review of Music in Renaissance Ferrara 1400-1505, p. 415; June 14, 1985, Denis Matthews, review of Beethoven Essays: Studies in Honor of Elliot Forbes, p. 670; November 13, 1992, Paul Griffiths, review of Beethoven: Studies in the Creative Process, pp.8-9.*