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Dallek, Robert 1934-

DALLEK, Robert 1934-

PERSONAL: Born May 16, 1934, in Brooklyn, NY; son of Rubin (a business-machine dealer) and Esther (Fisher) Dallek; married Geraldine Kronmal (a policy health analyst), August 22, 1965. Education: University of Illinois, B.A., 1955; Columbia University, M.A., 1957, Ph.D., 1964.

ADDRESSES: Office—Boston University Washington Program, 2138 Cathedral Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20008.

CAREER: Columbia University, New York, NY, instructor in history, 1960-64; University of California, Los Angeles, assistant professor, 1964-69, associate professor, 1969-73, professor of history, 1973-1994; University of Oxford, Oxford, England, Harmsworth Visiting Professor, 1994-95; University of Texas, LBJ School of Public Affairs, visiting professor, 1996; Boston University, professor of history, 1996—, codirector of programs in Washington, DC. Commonwealth Fund Lecturer, University of London, 1984; guest lecturer, University of Wyoming, 1986; Vassar College, 1987; visiting professor at numerous colleges and universities, including Vassar College, University of London, University of Wyoming, Brown University, and University of Texas.

MEMBER: American Academy of Arts and Sciences (fellow), American Historical Association, Organization of American Historians, Society of American Historians (fellow), Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations, American Psychoanalytic Association.

AWARDS, HONORS: Guggenheim fellow, 1973-74; National Endowment for the Humanities fellow, 1976-77; Bancroft Prize and American Book Award nomination in history, both 1980, both for Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1932-1945; Rockefeller Foundation fellow, 1981-82; American Style of Foreign Policy named a New York Times Notable Book of the Year, 1983; Henry L. Eby Award for the Art of Teaching, UCLA, 1984; fellow, American Council of Learned Societies, 1984-1985; research grants from Lyndon B. Johnson Foundation, 1984-85, 1988-89; honorary degree from Oxford University, 1995; Montgomery fellow, Dartmouth College, 2004.


Democrat and Diplomat: The Life of William E. Dodd, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1968.

Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1932-1945, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 1979, with a new afterword, 1995.

The American Style of Foreign Policy: Cultural Policy and Foreign Affairs, Knopf (New York, NY), 1983.

Ronald Reagan: The Politics of Symbolism, Harvard University Press (Cambridge, MA), 1984, with a new preface, 1999.

Franklin D. Roosevelt as World Leader: An Inaugural Lecture Delivered before the University of Oxford on 16 May 1995, Clarendon Press (New York, NY), 1995.

Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1908-1960, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), Volume 1: Lone Star Rising: 1908-1960, Volume 2: Flawed Giant:1961-1973, 1991, one-volume abridged edition published as Lyndon B. Johnson: Portrait of a President, 2004.

Hail to the Chief: The Making and Unmaking of American Presidents, Oxford University Press (New York, NY), 2001.

An Unfinished Life: John F. Kennedy, 1917-1963, Little, Brown (Boston, MA), 2003.


1898: McKinley's Decision—War on Spain, Random House (New York, NY), 1969.

The Roosevelt Diplomacy and World War II, Holt (New York, NY), 1970.

Dynamics of World Power: Documentary History of U.S. Foreign Policy, 1945-1973, Volume I, Chelsea House (New York, NY), 1973.


Contributor to books, including American-East Asian Relations: A Survey, edited by Ernest May and James Thomson, Harvard University Press (Cambridge, MA), 1972, Shared Destiny: Fifty Years of Soviet-American Relations, edited by Mark Garrison and Abbott Gleason, Beacon Press (Boston, MA), 1985, and Spaceflight and the Myth of Presidential Leadership, edited by Roger D. Launius and Howard E. McCurdy, University of Illinois Press (Champaign, IL), 1997. Contributor to periodicals, including American Historical Review, Survey, Buffalo News, Washington Post, and Denver Post.

ADAPTATIONS: An Unfinished Life: John F. Kennedy, 1917-1963 was recorded for Time Warner Audio Books, 2003.

WORK IN PROGRESS: A dual biography of Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger.

SIDELIGHTS: Robert Dallek is a historian who specializes in studies of America's relations with other members of the world community. With books such as Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1932-1945 and The American Style of Foreign Policy: Cultural Policy and Foreign Affairs, Dallek has won prestigious awards and critical acclaim.

In his survey of Roosevelt's foreign policy, Dallek suggested that the president's role during the turbulent years prior to the Japanese air attack on Pearl Harbor was to balance the desire to stay out of the war with the impulse to help defeat the Nazi forces. Isolationism and international politics both seemed like valid choices at the time Roosevelt came to power. While giving covert aid to European allies, Roosevelt held off American military involvement until the attack at Pearl Harbor, an event that demanded immediate retaliation. Critics of Roosevelt have suggested that the surprise attack by the Japanese could have been averted if the United States had entered into the war sooner, but to Dallek, Roosevelt's motivation was clear. New Republic reviewer Ronald Steel stated: "FDR's refusal to oppose Nazi and Italian aggression in the 1930s lay not in indecisiveness, isolationism or appeasement, but in a 'determination to retain his ability to influence crucial developments at home.'" Steel also commented: "Whether or not one fully accepts Dallek's admiring view of Roosevelt as diplomatist, all students of foreign affairs must remain in his debt for the diligence of his research, the objectivity of his analysis, the thoroughness and intellectual integrity of his treatment." Steel concluded that Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1932-1945 "is diplomatic history at a very high level."

In The American Style of Foreign Policy, Dallek proposes that "foreign policy has for the most part reflected domestic anxieties and preoccupations," as Mark Garrison commented in the Washington Post Book World. Acknowledging the work of fellow historian Richard Hofstadter, who originally conceived this theory, Dallek "proceeds systematically and frequently mechanically through 80 years of foreign policy," remarked New York Times Book Review critic Gaddis Smith. "Time and again he argues American perceptions and actions had little to do with foreign reality and much to do with a felt need to cure domestic disharmony or to prove to ourselves that democracy is alive and well or to justify cultural and political conformity." Smith criticized Dallek for going "too far in an effort to fit everything into the Iron Maiden of the Hofstadter thesis. He sees all bad policies as the result of the inappropriate and dangerous influence of internal forces or considerations. He sees good policies, congruent with external realities, as good largely by chance." However, Smith added, "pressing an argument too far is better than blandness and therefore is no great flaw. This book should be judged not by details but by its capacity to stimulate thinking about fundamentals. By that measure it succeeds."

In New Republic critic Walter LaFeber's view, The American Style of Foreign Policy "provides more than an interesting survey of U.S. foreign policy in the twentieth century. It attempts to develop a new synthesis for understanding that policy. In doing so, Dallek raises some of the most important questions that must be asked about past and present diplomacy. He has not retreated into history to avoid current controversies, but used history to open new perspectives on them."

Dallek's next book, Ronald Reagan: The Politics of Symbolism, moved from the realm of foreign policy to examine the forces that shaped Ronald Reagan's outlook on life. Published only months before Reagan's election to a second term as chief executive, the book takes a psycho-sociological view of his words and actions. Dallek states that Reagan's presidency "is shaped by an obsession to recapture an idyllic childhood past, which never existed," Atlantic critic Robert Sherrill related. Reagan "has a fanatical faith in 'traditional values' that, in fact, had only a secondary influence on his own life," Sherrill continued. "He preaches precepts that he has never had to live by." Morton Kondracke, who assessed the book for New York Times Book Review, took exception to Dallek's tone in Ronald Reagan, saying that the author is "both morally and intellectually condescending toward the President." Furthermore, Kondracke felt, "some of [Dallek's] accusations seem contradictory…. On the one hand, Mr. Reagan is described as passive, 'the consummate expression of the organization man, the other-directed personality who lacks genuine autonomy.' On the other hand, he remains fixedly attached to his 'familiar verities' … which logically would seem to make him the consummate expression of the sociologist David Riesman's 'inner-directed' personality."

Dallek's recollection of Reagan's childhood, including his relationship with his alcoholic, often unemployed father, and the author's theory that this depressing experience made Reagan a champion of personal independence, made Sherrill "uneasy." The critic explained: "For one thing, Dallek makes too much of Reagan's rather commonplace memories. [The author] admits that 'these memories are not remarkable'; he insists, however that they are significant, because Reagan 'himself makes so much of them.' But does he really?…. The fact that Reagan has been talking about good old Dixon, Illinois, and moaning about poor old Dad for a quarter-century does not necessarily mean that these memories lie at the center of his soul; repetition is the style of all politicians." Despite these reservations, Sherrill conceded that Dallek's "probing of Reagan's skull is done in a graceful and lucid style. It is free of psychoanalytical cant, and anyone literate enough to read a ballot will have no problem following his argument." C. Vann Woodward concluded in a New Republic article that "on the whole," Ronald Reagan: The Politics of Symbolism "is one of the more illuminating studies of the dominant American political figure of our time."

Dallek chronicled the life of another American president in the two-volume Lyndon Johnson and His Times. Both the first volume, Lone Star Rising, and the second, Flawed Giant, have been credited as bringing Johnson into a more favorable light than his previous biographers had allowed him. David Kennedy in the Atlantic noted, Johnson "presents an extraordinary challenge to any biographer. He was a man of vibrant compassion and colossal vulgarity…. He combined Falstaffian appetites with Lincolnian ambitions, personal greed with high ideals. He gorged on work, women, and food, overbore friend and foe alike, and ravened for both money and power. Like Falstaff's, his physical presence was overwhelming—all six feet three and a half inches of him, thrusting himself into intimidating proximity with his interlocutor, perpetually in motion, pawing and hugging and poking, wheedling, cajoling, boasting, flattering, threatening, persuading, demanding."

David Hendrickson in Foreign Affairs called Dallek's two-volume biography a portrayal of "a figure who rose at times to great achievement but also, according to the author, entertained fears that bordered on the clinically paranoid. Dallek struggles heroically to come to terms with this contradictory figure but in the end confesses a certain bafflement, quite as if he had been subjected for years to the famed 'Johnson treatment' and is still unsure whether he should be charmed or appalled." Of Flawed Giant, Charles Bailey of the Washington Monthly felt "Though the book is rich in anecdote, it is much more: It is in fact the best balanced and most thorough account produced, or likely to be produced, about the ill-starred Johnson administration."

The massive work was abridged as Lyndon B. Johnson: Portrait of a President, and Karl Helicher of Library Journal said of that book, "Dallek … offers a rarity—a brief but thorough life of Johnson, now 30 years after his death…. Dallek skillfully discusses Johnson's political triumphs (civil and voting rights, Medicare anti Medicaid, federal aid to education) and failures (Vietnam, the promise to end poverty) and portrays his complex, larger than life personality. He concludes that Lyndon Johnson will be remembered as a President who mirrored the best and the worst of his memorable times."

In 2001, Dallek's Hail to the Chief: The Making and Unmaking of American Presidents examined the personal qualities of American presidents' traits that may have contributed to their success or failure as leaders. According to Norman Ornstein of Washington Monthly, Hail to the Chief "is solid, well-written popular history. Dallek competently covers the historical waterfront, focusing in greater detail on some of the more celebrated and vilified presidents. His framework is not deeply systematic, but his categories are sensible." In Wilson Quarterly, Stephen Hess remarked, "This is a useful book. It is also an unsatisfying one. It is useful because Dallek … has devised a sensible set of criteria for why some presidents succeed and others do not." It is unsatisfying, he continues, because "Dallek's considerable talent, as demonstrated in his major books about FDR and LBJ, is for archival research and the layering of many details into a rich tableau. But this slim volume is a series of short takes: Jefferson's deliberations on Louisiana occupy a mere two pages, Lincoln's decision to free the slaves only three. And Dallek is not adept at the essay form. His language lacks elegance." The reviewer concluded that this book "is bare-bones historiography: a thoughtful arrangement of material, perhaps, but still a bit like a professor's notes for an upper-level course on the American presidency." Paul Rorvig, a contributor to Presidential Studies Quarterly, recommended Hail to the Chief as "an informative and insightful book destined to provoke discussion and worthy of our attention."

In his next book, An Unfinished Life: John F. Kennedy, 1917-1963, Dallek used previously sealed medical records from the John F. Kennedy Library and Museum in Boston to back his characterization of Kennedy as a man in almost constant pain and under heavy medication. Kennedy suffered from chronic back problems, Addison's disease, arthritis, colitis, spinal degeneration, high fevers, abscesses, insomnia, low blood pressure, and high cholesterol. Dallek takes a look at Kennedy's accomplishments in light of his struggle to maintain his health. According to Cal McCrystal in the London Independent Sunday, with An Unfinished Life Dallek created "a conscientiously objective and balanced work. He is neither revisionist nor restorationist; rather, I would say, a revisionist of revisionism. With the help of hitherto unreleased documents, Dallek re-examines Kennedy's responses to the American civil rights movement, his perception of the threat to national defence and economic interests at various times, his diplomacy, his standing as a Great Democrat." Eoin McVey in the Irish Times reported, "Although nobody can be certain, [Dallek] argues that the constant pain and drug taking did not affect JFK's presidency." In all, concluded McVey, "Dallek has written a thoroughly-researched and very detailed narrative work. The style is scholarly and sometimes far from gripping but it is arguably the best JFK biography ever."



American Enterprise, November-December, 1998, David Koppel, review of Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1961-1973, p. 81.

American Historical Review, April, 1993, Ronnie Dugger, review of Lone Star Rising: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1908-1960, p. 460.

Arizona Daily Star (Tucson, AZ), June 2, 2003, C. J. Karamargin, "McCain what-if is part of Kennedy book," p. B6.

Atlanta Journal-Constitution (Atlanta, GA), May 30, 2003, John Freeman, review of John F. Kennedy: An Unfinished Life, 1917-1963, p. F4.

Atlantic, March, 1984, Robert Sherrill, review of Ronald Reagan: The Politics of Symbolism, pp. 127–130; September, 1991, David Kennedy, review of Lone Star Rising, p. 114.

Austin American-Statesman (Austin, TX), May 6, 1998, Bruce Hight, "Author: LBJ admired for power of his leadership," p. B2; May 16, 2003, "A President. An Intern. A Tryst," p. E1.

Australian (Sydney, Australia), July 31, 1998, Elaine Thompson, "Fabulous Monster Revealed," p. 11; November 24, 2003, p. 17.

Book, July-August 2003, Terry Teachout, "Mr. Personality," p. 74.

Booklist, August, 1996, Mary Carroll and Gilbert Taylor, review of Hail to the Chief: The Making and Unmaking of American Presidents, p. 1862; March 1, 1998, Gilbert Taylor, review of Flawed Giant, p. 1090; November 15, 2003, Gilbert Taylor, review of Lyndon B. Johnson, p. 567; December 1, 2003, Karen Harris, review of An Unfinished Life (audio version), p. 691.

Boston Herald, May 13, 2003, Kevin Rothstein, "New Book Claims Ex-Prez Romanced Teenage Intern," p. 4; May 14, 2003, Rosemary Herbert, "Death Fears Fueled JFK Sex Drive," p. 3; May 15, 2003, Margery Eagan, "At Wedding Exhibit, the First Lady and the Tramps," p. 23; May 16, 2003, Rosemary Herbert, "The Years of Living Dangerously," p. 36; May 21, 2003, Jules Crittenden, "JFK Biographer Surprised by Mania over Intern Affair," p. 25.

Buffalo News (Buffalo, NY), March 16, 1998, Mike Feinsilber, "Biographer Claims LBJ Bugged Humphrey's Phones," p. A7; June 14, 1998, Stephen Bell, "The Ending Can't Do Justice To LBJ's Beginnings," p. F7; November 25, 2002, p. B8; November 16, 2003, Edward Cuddy, "Kennedy and Bush, Study In Contrasts," p. H1.

CHOICE: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries, February, 1992, M. J. Birkner, review of Lone Star Rising, p. 953; October, 1998, J. A. McCartin, review of Flawed Giant, p. 378.

Chronicle of Higher Education, August 7, 1991, Ellen Coughlin, "Another Look at LBJ," p. A05.

Contemporary Review, September, 2004, Michael F. Hopkins, review of An Unfinished Life, p. 178.

Contemporary Urology, August, 2003, Culley Carson, "The 'Unfinished Life' of JFK," p. 11.

Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL), October 7, 1996, Lisa Friedman Miner, "Rating the Presidents," p. 1.

Daily Mail (London, England), May 16, 2003, George Gordon, "I Was 'Monica Lewinsky' to JFK," p. 39.

Daily News (Los Angeles, CA), June 7, 1998, Tom Nolan, review of Flawed Giant, p. V5.

Daily Telegraph (Surry Hills, Australia), November 19, 2002, "JFK Drug Cocktail," p. 21; May 14, 2003, "Kennedy's Affair with Teen," p. 36.

Economist, April 18, 1998, review of Flawed Giant, p. S8.

Entertainment Weekly, Joshua Rich, May 23, 2003, "Big Fat Book in 60 Seconds Flat," p. 83.

First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life, November, 2003, review of An Unfinished Life, p. 66.

Florida Times Union, June 29, 2003, David DeCamp, "JFK's life of history and illness," p. G4.

Foreign Affairs, July-August, 1998, David Hendrickson, review of Flawed Giant, p. 118.

Guardian (London, England), November 22, 2003, Martin Kettle, "In a Noble Cause," p. 12.

History Today, March, 1999, Peter Ling, review of Flawed Giant, p. 51; May, 2004, William D. Rubinstein, review of An Unfinished Life.

Houston Chronicle (Houston, TX), June 21, 1998, James Fairbanks, review of Flawed Giant, p. 23; May 14, 2003, Josh Getlin, "Book Details JFK's Health Woes, Distrust of Military," p. 15; June 22, 2003, James Fairbanks, "It's Not All about Sex," p. 17.

Independent Sunday (London, England), August 31, 2003, Cal McCrystal, "An American Aristocrat," p. 16.

Insight on the News, June 8, 1998, H. R. McMaster, review of Flawed Giant, p. 36.

International Herald Tribune, June 4, 2003, David Garrow, review of An Unfinished Life, p. 18.

International History Review, June, 1999, Melvin Small, review of Flawed Giant, p. 547.

Irish Times (Dublin, Ireland), September 20, 2003, Eoin McVey, "More Style than Substance," p. 61.

Journal of American Culture, fall, 1990, Marshall Fishwick, review of The American Style of Foreign Policy: Cultural Policy and Foreign Affairs, p. 92.

Journal of American History, September, 1984, review of Ronald Reagan: The Politics of Symbolism, p. 423; March, 1993, Peter Filene, review of The Great Republic, p. 1546, and George Tindall, review of Lone Star Rising, p. 1666; March, 1995, Thomas Holt, review of The Great Republic, p. 1641; June, 1999, Gil Troy, review of Flawed Giant, p. 198.

Journal of American Studies, August, 1992, M. J. Heale, review of Lone Star Rising, p. 302.

Journal of Southern History, May, 1993, Dan Carter, review of Lone Star Rising, p. 416; May, 2000, Dan Carter, review of Flawed Giant, p. 450.

Kliatt, March, 2002, William Kircher, review of Hail to the Chief: The Making and Unmaking of American Presidents, p. 34; November, 2003, Sunny Grant, review of An Unfinished Life, p. 57.

Library Journal, June 15, 1991, Thomas Carroll, review of Lone Star Rising, p. 84; August, 1996, William Pederson, review of Hail to the Chief, p. 92; March 15, 1998, Karl Helicher, review of Flawed Giant, p. 74; July, 2003, "Profiles in Courage and Caution," p. 102; November 15, 2003, Karl Helicher, review of Lyndon B. Johnson, p. 75.

Los Angeles Times, March 8, 1984; July 15, 1991, Josh Getlin, "Biopolitics," p. E1; May 13, 2003, review of An Unfinished Life, p. A10; June 1, 2003, Jack Newfield, "A Profile in Secret Courage," p. R4.

Maclean's, May 26, 2003, "Outings," p. 11.

National Review, October 26, 1979.

New Leader, December 30, 1991, Henry Graff, review of Lone Star Rising, p.15.

New Republic, May 19, 1979, Ronald Steel, review of Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1932-1945; June 20, 1983, Walter LaFeber, review of The American Style of Foreign Policy; April 2, 1984, C. Vann Woodward, review of Ronald Reagan.

News and Record (Piedmont Triad, NC), November 24, 2002, review of An Unfinished Life, p. H2.

Newsweek, July 22, 1991, Malcolm Jones, Jr., "Learning to Like Lyndon," p. 52; April 20, 1998, Malcolm Jones, Jr., review of Flawed Giant, p. 66; May 19, 2003, Weston Kosova, "We Hardly Knew the Half of It," p. 76.

New Yorker, July 14, 2003, "American Politics," p. 99.

New York Review of Books, October 25, 1979; May 28, 1984; December 5, 1991, C. Van Woodward, review of Lone Star Rising, p. 6.

New York Times, November 15, 2002, Lawrence Altman and Todd Purdum, "In J. F. K. File, Hidden Illness, Pain and Pills," p. 1; May 28, 2003, David Garrow, "Substance over Sex in Kennedy Biography," p. E1.

New York Times Book Review, May 20, 1979; March 27, 1983; March 4, 1984; July 21, 1991, Nicholas Lemann, review of Lone Star Rising, p. 1, Joseph Cincotti, "No One's Going to Have the Last Word," p. 30; September 29, 1996, Douglas Sylva, review of Hail to the Chief, p. 21; April 12, 1998, Sean Wilentz, review of Flawed Giant, p. 5; June 8, 2003, Ted Widmer, "Profile in Courage," p. 12.

Observer (London, England), January 23, 2000, Michael Holland, review of Flawed Giant, p. 14.

Political Science Quarterly, summer, 1992, Robert Divine, review of Lone Star Rising, p. 346.

Presidential Studies Quarterly, June, 1999, Paul Rorvig, review of Hail to the Chief, p. 504.

Publishers Weekly, May 17, 1991, Chris Goodrich, "A Different Take on LBJ from Oxford U.P.," p. 34; June 14, 1991, review of Lone Star Rising, p. 49; July 15, 1996, review of Hail to the Chief, p. 64; May 12, 2003, review of An Unfinished Life, p. 59; May 26, 2003, Daisy Maryles and Dick Donahue, "Don't Let It Be Forgot," p. 19; August 11, 2003, John Baker, "Dallek Takes on Dick & Henry," p. 118; September 1, 2003, review of An Unfinished Life (audio version), p. 35.

Record (Bergen County, NJ), July 15, 1996, Dick Polman, "Clinton Lacks Vision, But Does He Really Need It?," p. B8; May 3, 1998, Philip Seib, "Johnson's Record Speaks For Itself," p. Y7; November 29, 2002, Douglas Turner, "Another Side of JFK," p. L14; June 15, 2003, John Smyntek, "Balancing the Scale on JFK," p. E3; November 16, 2003, Wes Smith, "Kennedy Mystique Stands Test of Time," p. A16.

Register-Guard (Eugene, OR), July 27, 2003, review of An Unfinished Life, p. L7.

Reviews in American History, March, 1992, Leon Epstein, review of Lone Star Rising, p. 105; September, 1999, Julie Leininger Pycior, review of Flawed Giant, p. 482.

Seattle Post-Intelligencer (Seattle, WA), April 22, 1998, "'Giant' Portrait Of LBJ Persuasive And Detailed, But Reveals Little New," p. D2; January 10, 2001, "Assessing Clinton," p. B4.

Southwestern Historical Quarterly, April, 1993, Evan Anders, review of Lone Star Rising, p. 621; October, 1994, Evan Anders, review of Lone Star Rising, p. 297.

Spectator, September 6, 2003, Hugh Brogan, "Keeping an Eye on the Generals," p. 41.

Star-Ledger (Newark, NJ), July 5, 1998, Kathleen Daley, "A Big Man Dwarfed by Events," p. 007.

Sunday Herald (Glasgow, Scotland), September 7, 2003, Iain Macwhirter, "1963 and All That," p. 12.

Sunday Telegraph (London, England), August 24, 2003, Stephen Graubard, "Cover-up at the Court of Camelot," and Anthony Howard, "A Love Affair With Camelot," p. 11.

Sunday Times (London, England), August 24, 2003, p. 36; September 14, 2003, p. 4.

Tampa Tribune (Tampa, FL), May 17, 1998, "LBJ cut a Huge Swath through U.S. History," p. 4.

Time, May 19, 2003, Lance Morrow, "Kennedy's Secret Pain," p. 67.

Times (London, England), November 18, 2002, Tim Reid, "JFK Had to Fight Pain Every Day," p. 15; August 26, 2003, p. 4; September 6, 2003, Roy Hattersley, "The Burdens Borne," p. 11.

Times Higher Education Supplement, June 11, 2004, Nicholas Cull, review of An Unfinished Life, p. 33.

Times Literary Supplement, May 15, 1969; February 22, 1980; October 19, 1984; August 22, 2003, Christopher Hitchins, "In Sickness and by Stealth," p. 3.

Variety, February 23, 1998, David Mermelstein, "Reagan," p. 179.

Wall Street Journal, May 13, 2003, p. D5; June 16, 2003, Robert Bartley, "Kennedy's Vietnam," p. A15.

Washington Monthly, November, 1996, Norman Ornstein, review of Hail to the Chief, p. 60; May, 1998, Charles Bailey, review of Flawed Giant, p. 41.

Washington Post Book World, May 8, 1983.

Washington Times, June 9, 1998, Patrick Butters, "Author's 'Giant' Task," p. 8; July 15, 2003, Loredana Vuoto, "JFK Revisited the Old Face of Liberalism," p. A19.

Wilson Quarterly, autumn, 1996, Stephen Hess, review of Hail to the Chief, p. 93.

Winston-Salem Journal (Winston-Salem, NC), September 21, 2003, Paul O'Connor, "Miracle Man," p. A24.


Bookreporter, (February 28, 2004), David Exum, review of An Unfinished Life.

First Things, (November, 2003), review of An Unfinished Life.

Guardian Unlimited, (November 22, 2003), Martin Kettle, "In a Noble Cause."

History News Network, (September 20, 2004), Rick Shenkman, interview with Robert Dallek.

National Public Radio Web site, (September 20, 2004), Howard Berkes, interview with Robert Dallek., (May 6, 1998), Charles Taylor, review of Flawed Giant.

Slate, (May 19, 2003), Fred Kaplan, review of An Unfinished Life.*

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