Chess, Stella 1914-2007
Chess, Stella 1914-2007
See index for CA sketch: Born March 1, 1914, in New York, NY; died of pneumonia, March 14, 2007, in New York, NY. Psychiatrist, educator, and author. Chess was a child psychologist who is best remembered for her theories about childhood temperament and the effects of conflicting childparent temperaments. Completing undergraduate work at Smith College in 1935, she earned her M.D. from New York University in 1939. After her internship and residency, she set up a private practice in New York City in 1942. She quickly began to focus on child psychiatry, serving as a resident at the Riverdale Children's Association and as a psychiatrist at the Northside Center for Child Development, becoming chief coordinating psychiatrist at the latter through most of the 1950s. She directed the child psychiatry clinic at Metropolitan Hospital during the early 1960s. By the 1950s, she and her psychiatrist husband, Alexander Thomas, were conducting research on human development that would lead to their theories about childhood temperaments. They came to believe that temperament was inherent, and that children typically fell into one of three categories: difficult, easy, or slow to warm up. Furthermore, if a child's temperament was not compatible with its parents—especially the mother—this could lead to psychological distress in the infant. Their early findings were published in 1960; later research indicated that temperaments could evolve over time and were not necessarily fixed, however. In addition to her active practice, Chess taught at the New York Medical College from 1949 until 1966. She then joined the New York University faculty in 1966, becoming a full professor in 1970 and directing child and adolescent psychiatric services. Chess continued to teach there even after she turned ninety. In addition to her An Introduction to Child Psychiatry (1959; 2nd edition, 1969), she was coauthor of such books as Your Child Is a Person: A Psychological Approach to Parenthood without Guilt (1965), Temperament and Development (1977), Know Your Child: An Authoritative Guide for Today's Parents (1987), and Goodness of Fit: Clinical Applications from Infancy through Adult Life (1999).
OBITUARIES AND OTHER SOURCES:
New York Times, March 22, 2007, p. A23.
"Chess, Stella 1914-2007." Contemporary Authors. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 16, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/educational-magazines/chess-stella-1914-2007
"Chess, Stella 1914-2007." Contemporary Authors. . Retrieved January 16, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/educational-magazines/chess-stella-1914-2007
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.