musique concrète (Fr.). Concrete music. Mus. prepared from recorded sounds, either natural (e.g. birdsong) or man-made (traffic, instr. etc.). Term originated by Pierre Schaeffer in 1948 to differentiate between mus. assembled from concrete sound objects and mus. based on the abstract medium of notation. Strictly, musique concrète should not be modified electronically but the distinction between it and electronically synthesized sound has been increasingly blurred until the term elec. mus. covers the whole process.
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Muske-Dukes, Carol 1945- (Carol Ann Muske-Dukes, Carol Anne Muske-Dukes, Carol Muske, Carol Anne Muske)