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degrees and diplomas in music

degrees and diplomas in music.
1. BRITISH UNIVERSITY DEGREES. The degrees in music given by Brit. and Irish universities are Bachelor (BMus or MusB), Master of Music (MMus), and Doctor (DMus or MusD). Universities which confer a MMus degree are Birmingham, Bristol, Cambridge, Durham, East Anglia, Edinburgh, London, Manchester, Newcastle upon Tyne, and Surrey.

In several universities it is possible to obtain by research in musical subjects the degree of LittM, LittB, LittD, EdM, and PhD (or MLitt, BLitt, DLitt, MEd, and DPhil)—Bachelor and Doctor of Letters, and Doctor of Philosophy. At Reading, music may be studied with physics for BSc.

By an old custom dating from the 13th cent., the Archbishop of Canterbury (by virtue of his former office of Legate of the Pope) has the power to grant degrees, and he sometimes exercises this power by conferring the doctorate of music. These degrees are known as Canterbury Degrees (DMus Cantuar) or (from the Archbishop's London palace, from which they are issued) Lambeth Degrees.

Various universities in the Commonwealth confer music degrees, their requirements being not so much standardized as those of British universities.

At some Brit, universities music can now be taken as one of the subjects for a degree in Arts. Through the Council for National Academic Awards, some polytechnics and colleges of technology award a BA degree for music.

2. DIPLOMAS. The diploma-conferring bodies in the list now to be given are recognized as genuine public bodies. Their diplomas are usually graded as follows: (a) Associateship, (b) Licentiateship (not always present), (c) Fellowship. This is not quite invariable, however; for instance, the Royal Academy of Music confers Licentiateship upon external or internal candidates. Fellowship is reserved by some institutions as a purely honorary distinction.ROYAL ACADEMY OF MUSIC (founded 1822). FRAM (limited to 150 distinguished past students); Hon RAM (honorary members); ARAM; LRAM (open to non-students and with the differentiation, ‘teacher’ or ‘performer’); SPECIAL DIPLOMA of the Teachers' Training Course.ROYAL COLLEGE OF MUSIC (founded 1883, succeeding the National Training Coll. of Music, founded 1873). FRCM (honorary, limited to 50); Hon RCM (distinguished non-students); Hon ARCM (distinguished past students); ARCM by examination, open to non-students and with the differentiation, ‘teacher’ or ‘performer’); MMus RCM (Master of Music—severe and varied tests; open to non-students); Teachers' Training Course certificate awarded to selected students from certain colleges for a 1-year course.ASSOCIATED BOARD The RAM and RCM combine, under the title ‘Royal Schools of Music, London’ with also Royal Northern College and Royal Scottish Academy, to confer in the Commonwealth the diploma, formerly known as LAB (Licentiate of the Associated Board), now entitled LRSM, London. This is the Overseas equivalent of LRAM and ARCM.ROYAL COLLEGE OF ORGANISTS (founded 1864), ARCO; FRCO, with an additional (optional) diploma entitling the candidate to add the letters ChM (i.e. Choirmaster). In 1936 the Archbishop of Canterbury instituted a Diploma in Church Music to the examination for which he admits only FRCOs holding the ChM diploma, who on passing his examination become ADCMs.TRINITY COLLEGE OF MUSIC (founded 1872 and a teaching school of music in Univ. of London). ATCL; LTCL; FTCL (these in executive subjects—as Teacher or Performer); AMusTCL; LMusTCL (these in theoretical subjects). GTCL; Hon. FTCL Hon. TCL (FTCL awarded also for orig. composition).GUILDHALL SCHOOL OF MUSIC AND DRAMA (founded 1880). BMus (degree course); AGSM (internal students); LGSM (internal and external students); FGSM (honorary—limited to 100); GGSM (internal students); Hon GSM (honorary—limited to 100).ROYAL MANCHESTER COLLEGE OF MUSIC (founded 1893). ARMCM (after a 3 years' course and examination) and FRMCM (honorary only) also Hon RMCM. This college was amalgamated in 1972 into Royal Northern College of Music.ROYAL NORTHERN COLLEGE OF MUSIC, MANCHESTER (founded 1972, being amalgamation of RMCM and Northern School of Music). GMusRNCM; GRNCM; PPRNCM (Professional Performance Course).BIRMINGHAM CONSERVATORY (founded 1887). ABSM; ABSM (TTD), Teacher's Training Diploma; LBSM; GBSM (after Graduate Course); FBSM (honorary).ROYAL SCOTTISH ACADEMY OF MUSIC AND DRAMA (founded 1929). Dip RSAM and (in musical education) Dip Mus Ed RSAM (both after a full course in the Academy and examination).LONDON COLLEGE OF MUSIC (founded 1887). Diplomas include ALCM, LLCM, FLCM, GLCM, AMusLCM, LMusLCM.ROYAL MILITARY SCHOOL OF MUSIC (Kneller Hall). Graduation is indicated by the letters psm, meaning ‘passed school of music’.BANDSMAN'S COLLEGE OF MUSIC. This examining body was instituted in 1931 with unpaid officials and described as The National Institutions of the Brass Band Movement. It awards, after examination, 3 diplomas, BBCM (Bandmaster), ABCM, and LBCM.OVERSEAS SCHOOLS OF MUSIC. Some of the universities in different parts of the Commonwealth, having schools of music attached, grant a diploma. The Royal Canadian College of Organists grants diplomas of ARCCO and FRCCO.

3. AMERICAN DEGREES. The number of universities, colleges, schools of music, etc., conferring music degrees is well over 700, of which over half are at bachelor level only. The oldest undergraduate degrees are BA and BMus. Many music courses are for 4 years, most of them involving practical work such as conducting. Degrees in theory, musicology, and performance in some universities are Master of Music (MM) and Master of Music Education (MME). There are also DMA (Doctor of Musical Arts) and MMA.

4. AMERICAN DIPLOMAS. The USA, fortunately, does not possess the bewildering variety of diploma-conferring institutions of Britain, nor are alphabetical distinctions of any kind so much valued. The Amer. Guild of Organists (1896) confers diplomas of Associateship and Fellowship—AAGO and FAGO: when the examination as choirmaster is passed the letters ChM may be added.

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