Carrillo (-Traj ilio), Julián (Antonio)
Carrillo (-Traj ilio), Julián (Antonio)
innovative Mexican composer; b. Ahualulco, San Luis Potosí, Jan. 28, 1875; d. Mexico City, Sept. 9, 1965. He was of Indian extraction, and lived mostly in Mexico City, where he studied violin with Pedro Manzano and composition with Melesio Morales. He graduated from the National Cons, in 1899 and received a government stipend for study abroad as a winner of the President Diaz Prize. He took courses at the Leipzig Cons, with Hans Becker (violin), Jadassohn (theory), and Hans Sitt (orchestration). He also played violin in the Gewandhaus Orch. under Nikisch. From 1902 to 1904 he studied at the Ghent Cons., winning 1st prize as violinist. He returned to Mexico in 1905 and made numerous appearances as a violinist. He also conducted concerts. Carrillo served as general inspector of music and director of the National Cons. (1913–14; 1920–24). He visited the U.S. many times, and conducted his works in N.Y. and elsewhere. During his years in Leipzig, he wrote a Sym., which he conducted there in 1902; at the same time, he began experimenting with fractional tones and developed a theory which he named Sonido 13, symbolically indicating divisions beyond the 12 notes of the chromatic scale. He further devised a special number notation for quarter tones, eighth tones, and sixteenth tones, and constructed special instruments for their realization, such as a harpzither with 97 strings to the octave. He also publ. several books dealing with music of fractional tones, and ed. a monthly magazine, El Sonido 13, in 1924–25. His music was championed by Stokowski, who often premiered his works; the two toured Mexico in 1930–31 with the Thirteenth Sound Orch., which Carrillo had founded. In the 1940s he patented plans for 15 microtonal pianos, known as metamorphosing pianos. They were finally exhibited and won a Gold Medal at the World’s Fair in Brussels in 1958, where one of them was used in the premiere of his piano concerto Metamorfoseador Carillo.
DRAMATIC: Opera: Oina a Principe Ossian (1902); Matilda o México en 1810 (1909); Xúlitil (1921; rev. 1947). orch.: 4 suites for Chamber Orch. (Bagatelas, 1896; rev. 1932; Los naranjos, c. 1903; Impresiones de la Habana, 1929; arrangement of 6 Preludes for Piano, 1944); 3 numbered syms. (1901; 1905; Atonal, 1945); 2 marchas nupciales for Chamber Orch. (1909); 8 de septiembre, fantasy for Piano and Orch. (1930); Xochimilco, symphonic poem (1935); Triple Concerto for Flute, Violin, Cello, and Orch. (1942); Trozo sinfónico atonal (1961). 3 Columbia syms., in quarter, eighth, and sixteenth tones (1926, 1926, 1931); Concertino for 6 Instruments (Piccolo, Horn, Harp, Violin, Cello, and Guitar) in quarter, eighth, and sixteenth tones, with Orch. in normal tuning (1926; Philadelphia, March 4, 1927); Serenata for quarter-tone Cello with Orch. in normal tuning (1926); Nocturno al Río Hudson for Orch. in quarter, eighth, and sixteenth tones (1927); Capricho for Horn in sixteenth tones and Orch. in normal tuning (1929); Concerto for Cello in quarter and eighth tones and Orch. in normal tuning (1945); Horizontes, symphonic poem for Violin, Cello, and Harp in quarter and sixteenth tones and Orch. in normal tuning (1947; Pittsburgh, Nov. 30, 1951); Concerto, Metamorfoseador Carrillo, for Metamorphosing Piano in third tones and Orch. in normal tuning (1948; Brussels, Nov. 9, 1958); 2 concertos for Violin in quarter tones and Orch. in normal tuning (1949, 1964); Balbuceos for Metamorphosing Piano in sixteenth tones and Chamber Orch. in normal tuning (1958; Houston, March 18, 1960). chamber:Stella (Berceuse) for Flute, Horn, English Horn, Harp, and Cello (1897); String Sextet (1900); unnumbered String Quartet in E-flat (1903); 6 sonatas for Solo Violin (Paganini, 1903; 1909; n.d.; 1963; n.d.; n.d.); Tema con variaciones for Violin and Piano (1910); Piano Quintet (1913); 4 numbered string quartets, subtitled Atonal (a Debussy, c. 1927; c. 1930; 1932; a Beethoven, 1955); unnumbered String Quartet, on a 6-tone scale (1937); unnumbered String Quartet, on a 7-tone scale (c. 1940). 2 of 5 separate pieces under the collective title 5 primeras composiciones, all in quarter, eighth, and sixteenth tones: Preludio for Cello and Small Ensemble and Hoja de album for 6 Instruments (1922–58); 8 unnumbered string quartets in quarter tones (c. 1924; c. 1925; c. 1925; Meditación, 1926; En secreto, 1926; 1962; 1964; 1964); Sonata casi-fantasia for 7 Instruments in quarter, eighth, and sixteenth tones (1925); Serenata for Cello in quarter tones, with English Horn, Harp, and String Quarter in normal tuning (1926); 3 Estudios en forma de sonatina for Solo Violin in quarter tones (1927); Sonata for Solo Cello in quarter tones (1927); Fantasia Sonido 13 for String Quartets, Wind Quintet, Trumpet, Trombone, and Harps in quarter, eighth, and sixteenth tones (1930); Amanecer en Berlin 13, sonata for Solo Zither-Harp in quarter tones (1931; rev. 1957); 4 Casi-sonatas for Solo Cello in quarter tones (1959); Sonata for Guitar in quarter tones (1960); 3 Casi-sonatas for Solo Violin in quarter tones (1960); 4 Casi-sonatas for Solo Viola in quarter tones (1961). keyboard: piano:En el bosque, waltz (1896); 6 Preludes (1920). vocal:Misa for Chorus and Orch. (1896); Requiem for Chorus and Orch. (1900); Misa al Sagrado Corazón de Jesús for Men’s Chorus and Orch. (1918); Pequeño requiem atonal for 24 Solo Voices, 4 Mixed Choruses, and Orch. (1956); choruses and songs. Preludio a Colón for Soprano and 5 Instruments, Ave Maria for Chorus and 6 Instruments, and Tepepán for Soprano with Chorus and Harp (3 pieces from the cycle 5 Primera composiciones, all in quarter, eighth, and sixteenth tones, 1922–25); “I Think of You” for Soprano Singing in English and in quarter tones with Trumpet and Zither-Harp in sixteenth tones (1929); Misa a S. S. Juan XXIII for Chorus singing in quarter tones (1962); Misa No. 2 for Men’s Chorus singing in quarter tones (1965).
Julián Carrillo, Su vida y su obra (Mexico City, 1945); Leyes de metamorfósis musicales (Mexico City, 1949).
—Nicolas Slonimsky/Laura Kuhn/Dennis McIntire
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