Skip to main content

Shafer, D. Michael

SHAFER, D. Michael

SHAFER, D. Michael. American, b. 1953. Genres: History, Social commentary, Politics/Government. Career: U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC, intern, 1976; Institute for Psychiatry and Foreign Affairs, Washington, DC, executive director, 1976-77; Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, assistant professor, 1984-90, associate professor of political science, 1990-97, professor of political science, 1997-. Citizenship and Service Education Program, director; Harvard University, teaching fellow, 1980-84; University of Cape Town, visiting professor, 1983; New School for Social Research, adjunct professor, 1989-; speaker at Defense Intelligence College, 1989, and U.S. Military Academy, 1991;, director. Publications: (coauthor) Back in the USSR, 1988; Deadly Paradigms: The Failure of U.S. Counterinsurgency Policy, 1988; (ed. and contrib.) The Legacy: The Vietnam War in the American Imagination, 1990; Winners and Losers: How Sectors Shape the Developmental Prospects of States, 1994. Address: c/o Leona Schecter, 3748 Huntington St NW, Washington, DC 20015, U.S.A.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Shafer, D. Michael." Writers Directory 2005. . 18 Apr. 2019 <>.

"Shafer, D. Michael." Writers Directory 2005. . (April 18, 2019).

"Shafer, D. Michael." Writers Directory 2005. . Retrieved April 18, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.