MACKENNEY, Richard. British, b. 1953. Genres: History. Career: Historian and educator. University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, senior lecturer in history. Publications: Tradesmen and Traders: The World of the Guilds in Venice and Europe, c. 1250-c. 1650, 1987; The City-State, 1500- 1700: Republican Liberty in an Age of Princely Power, 1989; Sixteenth- Century Europe: Expansion and Conflict, 1993; Renaissance Italians, 1300- 1600, 1997. Author of specialized articles on Renaissance Venice. Address: Department of History, University of Edinburgh, William Robertson Building, George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9JY, Scotland.