Clitherow, Margaret (1556–1586)
Clitherow, Margaret (1556–1586)
English martyr and saint. Name variations: Margaret Middleton; Pearl of York. Born in 1556 in York, England; died Mar 25, 1586 in England; dau. of Thomas Middleton (sheriff of York, 1564–65); m. John Clitherow (butcher and chamberlain of city), 1571; children: Henry and William (priests); Anne (nun at St. Ursula's, Louvain).
Canonized for defense of priests and adherence to Catholic precepts and practices despite persecution during Reformation; converted to Catholicism (1574); remained in marriage though husband continued to belong to Protestant Church; for harboring priests and celebrating mass, was frequently imprisoned, sometimes for 2 years at a time, but never abandoned activities; arrested (Mar 10, 1586), was arraigned before Judges Clinch and Rhodes and several members of Council of the North at York assizes (Mar 14); condemned to "peine forte et dure" (to be pressed to death); tormented by ministers, was urged to confess crimes but refused, to avoid implicating her children and servants; was probably with child when sentence was carried out barbar ously on Good Friday (1586); canonized by Pope Paul VI (1970).
See also John Mush, "Life and Death of Margaret Clitherow the Martyr of York" in Troubles of our Catholic Forefathers (W. Nicholson, 1849).
"Clitherow, Margaret (1556–1586)." Dictionary of Women Worldwide: 25,000 Women Through the Ages. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/women/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/clitherow-margaret-1556-1586
"Clitherow, Margaret (1556–1586)." Dictionary of Women Worldwide: 25,000 Women Through the Ages. . Retrieved March 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/women/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/clitherow-margaret-1556-1586
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.