natural experiment An experiment in which the independent variable is not artificially manipulated, but rather changes naturally in terms of its level or presence, so that these alterations can be used to monitor its effect and attempt to determine its impact upon a dependent variable or variables. Such studies are understandably rare in sociology, although one example is provided by John Gaventa's study of quiescence and rebellion among Appalachian coal miners (Power and Powerlessness, 1980), which investigates the impact of historically variable power relationships (most notably the mobilization of bias (see COMMUNITY POWER)) involving large business corporations in local communities.
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Naturalism (philosophy) , naturalism In sociology and moral philosophy the term naturalism has several distinct but related uses which are frequently confused with one another… natural , nat·u·ral / ˈnachərəl/ • adj. 1. existing in or caused by nature; not made or caused by humankind: carrots contain a natural antiseptic that fights b… John Dewey , Dewey, John (1859–1952) The American philosopher, educator, and social critic John Dewey was born in Burlington, Vermont. A shy youth, he enjoyed rea… John Dewey , Dewey, John (1859–1952) The American philosopher, educator, and social critic John Dewey was born in Burlington, Vermont. A shy youth, he enjoyed rea… Power , Power The meanings of power, influence, control, and domination are uncertain, shifting, and overlapping. Although two of these words may be intercha… referent power , referent power In one of the many available typologies of power, J. R. P. French and and B. Raven (‘The Bases of Social Power’, in D. Cartwright ( ed…
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