adsorption

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adsorption, adhesion of the molecules of liquids, gases, and dissolved substances to the surfaces of solids, as opposed to absorption, in which the molecules actually enter the absorbing medium (see adhesion and cohesion). Certain solids have the power to adsorb great quantities of gases. Charcoal, for example, which has a great surface area because of its porous nature, adsorbs large volumes of gases, including most of the poisonous ones, and is therefore used in gas masks. Certain finely divided solids have great adsorptive properties; for example, minute particles of platinum attract and hold multitudes of hydrogen molecules on their surfaces. Its ability to adsorb other gases makes platinum very useful in the production of sulfuric acid by the contact process and in the preparation of ammonia. Adsorption occurs also in solutions; colloidal particles suspended in a solution may adsorb much of the solvent (see colloid). Bone black and charcoal are used in industry to remove colors from solutions, since they adsorb many coloring materials and carry these with them when separated from the solution. Liquid dye held to the surface of cloth by adsorption permeates the fibers so that when the liquid has evaporated the dye still remains. Adsorption is employed in the hydrogenation of oils, in gas analysis, and in chromatography, a method used in the chemical analysis of closely related substances.

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adsorption The physical binding of a particle of a particular substance to the surface of another by adhesion or penetration. In soils it is the attachment of an ion, molecule, or compound to the charged surface of a particle, usually of clay or humus, where it may be subsequently replaced or exchanged. Ions carrying positive charges (e.g. those of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium) become attached to, or adsorbed by, negatively charged surfaces (e.g. those of clay or humus).

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adsorption The physical binding of a particle of a particular substance to the surface of another by adhesion or penetration. In soils, it is the attachment of an ion, molecule, or compound to the charged surface of a particle, usually of clay or humus, where replacement or exchange may take place. Ions carrying positive charges (e.g. those of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium) become attached to, or adsorbed by, negatively charged surfaces (e.g. those of clay or humus).

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adsorption The attachment of an ion, molecule, or compound to the charged surface of a particle, usually of clay or humus, from where it may be subsequently replaced or exchanged. Ions carrying positive charges (e.g. those of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium) become attached to, or adsorbed by, negatively charged surfaces (e.g. those of clay or humus).

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adsorption The formation of a layer of solid, liquid, or gas on the surface of a solid or, less frequently, of a liquid. There are two types depending on the nature of the forces involved. In chemisorption a single layer of molecules, atoms, or ions is attached to the adsorbent surface by chemical bonds. In physisorption adsorbed molecules are held by the weaker physical forces. The property is utilized in adsorption chromatography.

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adsorption Attraction of a gas or liquid to the surface of a solid or liquid.It involves attraction of molecules at the surface, unlike absorption which implies incorporation. The amounts adsorbed and the rate of adsorption depend on the structure exposed, the chemical identities and concentrations of the substances involved, and the temperature. Corrosion on the surface of a metal involves a chemical adsorption.

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Adsorption

The removal of ions or molecules from solutions by binding to solid surfaces. Phosphorus is removed from water flowing through soils by adsorption on soil particles. Some pesticides adsorb strongly on soil particles. Adsorption by suspended solids is also an important process in natural waters.

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adsorption (ăd-sorp-shŏn) n. the formation of a layer of atoms or molecules of one substance on the surface of a solid or liquid of different substance. See adsorbent.

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