valence

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Valence

Valence, in chemistry, refers to a number assigned to elements that reflects their ability, or capacity, to react (combine) with other elements. It also refers to the type of reactions the element will undergo. Thus, the value of valence is associated with the number of electrons, if any, that an element loses or accepts from another atom during a chemical reaction. The term valence, also referred to as valency or valence number, is derived from the Latin word for strength and can reflect an elements strength or affinity for certain types of reactions. The concept was formulated in the nineteenth century as a way to organize formulas of the various chemical compounds.

Oftentimes, Greek prefixes are used to describe an atoms or a materials valency. For example, uni/mono stands for 1, while bi/di stands for 2, tri for 3, and tetra for 4. For instance, a unimetal will have a valence of 1.

The electrons in an atom are located at different energy levels. The electrons in the highest energy level are called valence electrons. In accord with the octet ruleand to become more energetically stable atoms gain, lose, or share valence electrons in an effort to obtain a noble gas configuration in their outer shell. The configuration of electrons in an atoms outer shell determines its ability and affinity to enter into chemical reactions.

The valence number of an element can be determined by using a few simple rules relating to an elements location on the periodic table. In ionic compounds (formed between charged atoms or groups of atoms called ions) the valence of an atom is the number of electrons that atom will gain or lose to obtain a full outer shell. In group one of the periodic table, elements are assigned a valence number of 1. A valence number of 1 means that an element will generally react to lose one electron to obtain a full outer shell. Group two elements are assigned a valence number of 2. A valence number of 2 means that a group two element will generally react to lose two electrons to obtain a full outer shell. Group 17 elements are assigned a valence number of negative one (-1). A valence number of -1 means that a group two element will generally react to gain one electron to obtain a noble gas electron configuration. Reflecting an inability to react with other elements, Nobel gases, already maintaining a stable arrangement of electrons, are assigned a valence of zero (O).

The term valence can also refer to the charge or oxidation number on an atom. In magnesium atoms (Mg+ 2), for instance, the valence is +2. An atom or ion with a charge of +2 is said to be divalent.

In covalent compounds the valence of an atom may be less obvious. In this case, it is the number of bonds formed, that is, whether the bonds are single, double, or triple bonds. A carbon atom with two single bonds and one double bond carries a valence of four (4). In water (H2O), the valence of oxygen is 2 and the valence of hydrogen is 1. In both cases the valence number gives an indication of the number of bonds each atom forms.

Valence bond theory is similar to molecular orbital theory in that it is concerned with the formation of covalent bonds. Valence bond theory describes bonds in term of interactions between outer orbitals and hybridized orbitals to explain the formation of compounds.

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory is one of the favored models to explain covalent bonds. This theory states that molecules will be shaped to minimize the repulsion that takes place between valence electrons. Because they are all negatively charged, valence shell electrons repel one another. VSEPR theory states that the atoms of a molecule will arrange themselves and assume a shape around a central atom to minimize repulsion between valence electrons.

See also Atomic models; Atomic number; Atomic theory; Chemical bond; Chemistry.

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Valence

Valence refers to a number assigned to elements that reflects their ability to react with other elements and the type of reactions the element will undergo. The term valence is derived from the Latin word for strength and can reflect an element's strength or affinity for certain types of reactions.

The electrons in an atom are located at different energy levels. The electrons in the highest energy level are called valence electrons. In accord with the octet rule— and to become more energetically stable—atoms gain, lose, or share valence electrons in an effort to obtain a noble gas configuration in their outer shell. The configuration of electrons in an atom's outer shell determines its ability and affinity to enter into chemical reactions .

The valence number of an element can be determined by using a few simple rules relating to an ele ment's location on the periodic table . In ionic compounds (formed between charged atoms or groups of atoms called ions) the valence of an atom is the number of electrons that atom will gain or lose to obtain a full outer shell. In group one of the periodic table, elements are assigned a valence number of 1. A valence number of 1 means that an element will generally react to lose one electron to obtain a full outer shell. Group two elements are assigned a valence number of 2. A valence number of 2 means that a group two element will generally react to lose two electrons to obtain a full outer shell. Group 17 elements are assigned a valence number of negative one (-1). A valence number of -1 means that a group two element will generally react to gain one electron to obtain a noble gas electron configuration. Reflecting an inability to react with other elements, Nobel gases, already maintaining a stable arrangement of electrons, are assigned a valence of zero (O).

The term valence can also refer to the charge or oxidation number on an atom. In magnesium atoms (Mg+2) the valence is +2. An atom or ion with a charge of +2 is said to be divalent.

In covalent compounds the valence of an atom may be less obvious. In this case it is the number of bonds formed, that is, whether the bonds are single, double, or triple bonds. A carbon atom with two single bonds and one double bond carries a valence of four (4). In water (H2O), the valence of oxygen is 2 and the valence of hydrogen is 1. In both cases the valence number gives an indication of the number of bonds each atom forms.

Valence bond theory is similar to molecular orbital theory in that it is concerned with the formation of covalent bonds. Valence bond theory describes bonds in term of interactions between outer orbitals and hybridized orbitals to explain the formation of compounds.

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory is one of the favored models to explain covalent bonds. This theory states that molecules will be shaped so as to minimize the repulsion that takes place between valence electrons. Because they are all negatively charged, valence shell electrons repel one another. VSEPR theory states that the atoms of a molecule will arrange themselves and assume a shape around a central atom so as to minimize repulsion between valence electrons.

See also Atomic models; Atomic number; Atomic theory; Chemical bond; Chemistry.

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VALENCE

VALENCE , chief town of the department of Dôme, s.e. France, part of the ancient province of Dauphiné. The establishment of the Jewish community in Valence does not go back earlier than 1323; however, the decision of the council held in the town in 1248 that prohibited all relations between Christians and Jews may lead to the assumption that isolated Jews were living there at the time. This decision appears to have been decreed in the wake of the accusation of ritual murder of *Valreas in 1247 as a result of which the high constable of Valence had all the Jews on his lands imprisoned and their possessions confiscated. In 1441, when the community numbered 18 families, the bishop recalled the obligation of the Jews to wear the distinctive sign so that "guests be not regarded as citizens." In 1463, 14 Jews of Valence were ordered to pay a severe fine to the dauphin "for having practiced excessive usury and having spoken evilly of His Majesty…." In 1476 the same dauphin granted the Jews of Valence a new letter of protection; however, at the close of the century this community disappeared, as did the other communities of Dauphiné. At the beginning of World War ii, there were about 50 Jewish families in Valence, half of whom were refugees from *Alsace. In the early 1970s, there were about 800 Jews in Valence, mainly of North African origin.

bibliography:

Gross, Gal Jud, 204; A. Prudhomme, in: rej, 9 (1884), 235–41; S. Grayzel, The Church and the Jews (19602), 234f.; P. de Torey, Catalogue des Acres du Dauphin Louis ii (1899), passim; Z. Szajkowski, Analytical Franco-Jewish Gazetteer (1966), 186.

[Bernhard Blumenkranz]

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va·lence / ˈvāləns/ • n. Chem. the combining power of an element, esp. as measured by the number of hydrogen atoms it can displace or combine with: carbon always has a valence of 4. ∎  [as adj.] relating to or denoting electrons involved in or available for chemical bond formation: molecules with unpaired valence electrons. ∎  Linguistics the number of grammatical elements with which a particular word, esp. a verb, combines in a sentence.

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valence (valency) Measure of the ‘combining power’ of a particular element, equal to the number of single chemical bonds one atom can form, or the number of electrons it gives up or accepts when forming a compound. Hydrogen has a valency of 1, carbon 4, and sulphur 2, as seen in compounds such as methane (CH4), carbon disulphide (CS2), and hydrogen sulphide (H2S). See also atomic number; covalent bond; ionic bond

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