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Valence (city, France)

Valence (väläNs´), city (1990 pop. 65,026), capital of Drôme dept., SE France, in Dauphiné, on the Rhône River. Its many manufactures include metallurgical products, textiles, leather goods, and jewelry. It is also a processing and trade center for a fertile farm area. An old Roman town, it was taken by the Visigoths (413) and the Arabs (c.730), then changed hands many times. Although nominally under the control of various European powers, it was actually ruled by its own bishops from 1150 until the 15th cent., when its citizens put themselves under the protection of the dauphin. Its Romanesque cathedral (11th cent.; partially restored) is a tourist attraction. Its university was founded in 1452.

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valence (in chemistry)

valence, combining capacity of an atom expressed as the number of single bonds the atom can form or the number of electrons an element gives up or accepts when reacting to form a compound. Atoms are called monovalent, divalent, trivalent, or tetravalent, according to whether they form one, two, three, or four bonds (see chemical bond).

The Relationship of Electrons and Valence

For purposes of describing chemical behavior, an atom can be considered as a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons orbiting in concentric spherical shells. The number of positive charges in the nucleus determines how many electrons normally surround the nucleus; as atomic number increases, the electron shells are filled, starting with those nearest the nucleus.

The valence of an atom is determined by the number of electrons in the outermost, or valence, shell. The atom exists in its most stable configuration when its outermost shell is completely filled; in combining with other atoms, it thus tends to gain or lose valence electrons in order to attain a stable configuration. If the valence shell of the atom is nearly complete, as in chlorine and other nonmetals, the atom will tend to accept electrons to complete it; if the valence shell has few electrons, as in potassium and other metals, the atom will tend to lose these electrons, so that the next shell below the valence shell becomes a completed outermost shell.

The valence of many elements is determined from their ability to combine with hydrogen or to replace it in compounds. For example, one oxygen atom combines with two hydrogen atoms to form water and the valence of oxygen is thus determined to be 2. Similarly, chlorine accepts one electron in combining with a single atom of hydrogen to form hydrogen chloride, HCl, and chlorine's valence is 1. Zinc does not combine with hydrogen but does replace it in compounds; in a typical replacement reaction, one zinc atom replaces two hydrogen atoms, as in the equation Zn+H2SO4→ZnSO4+H2, so that zinc has a valence of 2.

Valence Number

Atoms are assigned numbers, called valence numbers, oxidation numbers, or oxidation states, which range in value from -4 through 0 to +7 and describe the combining behavior of the atoms in chemical reactions, particularly oxidation-reduction reactions (see oxidation and reduction). Metals, which commonly donate electrons and form compounds in which they exist in the positive, or cationic, state, are assigned positive oxidation numbers (see cation). For a metal such as zinc, which donates two electrons to achieve a stable electron configuration, the oxidation number is +2. Nonmetals, which commonly accept electrons and in compounds exist in the negative, or anionic, state, are assigned negative oxidation numbers (see anion). The oxidation number is -1 for chlorine and the other halogens, which accept one electron to complete their valence shell.

Some elements, like the transition metals, have electron configurations in which electrons from their inner shells can also be used as valence electrons; these elements can have several different oxidation states. For example, iron can have a valence of +2 or +3, and chromium can have a valence of +2, +3, or +6. Iron in the +3 oxidation state, Fe+3, acts as an oxidizing agent, accepting one electron to attain the Fe+2 state, while ferrous iron, Fe+2, by donating an electron in going to the +3 state, acts as a reducing agent.

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valence

va·lence / ˈvāləns/ • n. Chem. the combining power of an element, esp. as measured by the number of hydrogen atoms it can displace or combine with: carbon always has a valence of 4. ∎  [as adj.] relating to or denoting electrons involved in or available for chemical bond formation: molecules with unpaired valence electrons. ∎  Linguistics the number of grammatical elements with which a particular word, esp. a verb, combines in a sentence.

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valence

valence (valency) Measure of the ‘combining power’ of a particular element, equal to the number of single chemical bonds one atom can form, or the number of electrons it gives up or accepts when forming a compound. Hydrogen has a valency of 1, carbon 4, and sulphur 2, as seen in compounds such as methane (CH4), carbon disulphide (CS2), and hydrogen sulphide (H2S). See also atomic number; covalent bond; ionic bond

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valence

valenceabeyance, conveyance, purveyance •creance • ambience •irradiance, radiance •expedience, obedience •audience •dalliance, mésalliance •salience •consilience, resilience •emollience • ebullience •convenience, lenience, provenience •impercipience, incipience, percipience •variance • experience •luxuriance, prurience •nescience • omniscience •insouciance • deviance •subservience • transience •alliance, appliance, compliance, defiance, misalliance, neuroscience, reliance, science •allowance •annoyance, clairvoyance, flamboyance •fluence, pursuance •perpetuance • affluence • effluence •mellifluence • confluence •congruence • issuance • continuance •disturbance •attendance, dependence, interdependence, resplendence, superintendence, tendance, transcendence •cadence •antecedence, credence, impedance •riddance • diffidence • confidence •accidence • precedence • dissidence •coincidence, incidence •evidence •improvidence, providence •residence •abidance, guidance, misguidance, subsidence •correspondence, despondence •accordance, concordance, discordance •avoidance, voidance •imprudence, jurisprudence, prudence •impudence • abundance • elegance •arrogance • extravagance •allegiance • indigence •counter-intelligence, intelligence •negligence • diligence • intransigence •exigence •divulgence, effulgence, indulgence, refulgence •convergence, divergence, emergence, insurgence, resurgence, submergence •significance •balance, counterbalance, imbalance, outbalance, valance •parlance • repellence • semblance •bivalence, covalence, surveillance, valence •sibilance • jubilance • vigilance •pestilence • silence • condolence •virulence • ambulance • crapulence •flatulence • feculence • petulance •opulence • fraudulence • corpulence •succulence, truculence •turbulence • violence • redolence •indolence • somnolence • excellence •insolence • nonchalance •benevolence, malevolence •ambivalence, equivalence •Clemence • vehemence •conformance, outperformance, performance •adamance • penance • ordinance •eminence • imminence •dominance, prominence •abstinence • maintenance •continence • countenance •sustenance •appurtenance, impertinence, pertinence •provenance • ordnance • repugnance •ordonnance • immanence •impermanence, permanence •assonance • dissonance • consonance •governance • resonance • threepence •halfpence • sixpence •comeuppance, tuppence, twopence •clarence, transparence •aberrance, deterrence, inherence, Terence •remembrance • entrance •Behrens, forbearance •fragrance • hindrance • recalcitrance •abhorrence, Florence, Lawrence, Lorentz •monstrance •concurrence, co-occurrence, occurrence, recurrence •encumbrance •adherence, appearance, clearance, coherence, interference, perseverance •assurance, durance, endurance, insurance •exuberance, protuberance •preponderance • transference •deference, preference, reference •difference • inference • conference •sufferance • circumference •belligerence • tolerance • ignorance •temperance • utterance • furtherance •irreverence, reverence, severance •deliverance • renascence • absence •acquiescence, adolescence, arborescence, coalescence, convalescence, deliquescence, effervescence, essence, evanescence, excrescence, florescence, fluorescence, incandescence, iridescence, juvenescence, luminescence, obsolescence, opalescence, phosphorescence, pubescence, putrescence, quiescence, quintessence, tumescence •obeisance, Renaissance •puissance •impuissance, reminiscence •beneficence, maleficence •magnificence, munificence •reconnaissance • concupiscence •reticence •licence, license •nonsense •nuisance, translucence •innocence • conversance • sentience •impatience, patience •conscience •repentance, sentence •acceptance • acquaintance •acquittance, admittance, intermittence, pittance, quittance, remittance •assistance, coexistence, consistence, distance, existence, insistence, outdistance, persistence, resistance, subsistence •instance • exorbitance •concomitance •impenitence, penitence •appetence •competence, omnicompetence •inheritance • capacitance • hesitance •Constance • importance • potence •conductance, inductance, reluctance •substance • circumstance •omnipotence • impotence •inadvertence • grievance •irrelevance, relevance •connivance, contrivance •observance • sequence • consequence •subsequence • eloquence •grandiloquence, magniloquence •brilliance • poignance •omnipresence, pleasance, presence •complaisance • malfeasance •incognizance, recognizance •usance • recusance

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