Cell Cycle (Eukaryotic), Genetic Regulation of
Cell cycle (eukaryotic), genetic regulation of
Although prokaryotes (i.e., non-nucleated unicellular organisms) divide through binary fission, eukaryotes undergo a more complex process of cell division because DNA is packed in several chromosomes located inside a cell nucleus . In eukaryotes, cell division may take two different paths, in accordance with the cell type involved. Mitosis is a cellular division resulting in two identical nuclei is performed by somatic cells. The process of meiosis results in four nuclei, each containing half of the original number of chromosomes. Sex cells or gametes (ovum and spermatozoids) divide by meiosis. Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes undergo a final process, known as cytoplasmatic division, which divides the parental cell into new daughter cells.
The series of stages that a cell undergoes while progressing to division is known as cell cycle . Cells undergoing division are also termed competent cells. When a cell is not progressing to mitosis, it remains in phase G0 ("G" zero). Therefore, the cell cycle is divided into two major phases: interphase and mitosis. Interphase includes the phases (or stages) G1, S and G2 whereas mitosis is subdivided into prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase.
The cell cycle starts in G1, with the active synthesis of RNA and proteins, which are necessary for young cells to grow and mature. The time G1 lasts, varies greatly among eukaryotic cells of different species and from one tissue to another in the same organism. Tissues that require fast cellular renovation, such as mucosa and endometrial epithelia, have shorter G1 periods than those tissues that do not require frequent renovation or repair, such as muscles or connective tissues.
The cell cycle is highly regulated by several enzymes , proteins, and cytokines in each of its phases, in order to ensure that the resulting daughter cells receive the appropriate amount of genetic information originally present in the parental cell. In the case of somatic cells, each of the two daughter cells must contain an exact copy of the original genome present in the parental cell. Cell cycle controls also regulate when and to what extent the cells of a given tissue must proliferate, in order to avoid abnormal cell proliferation that could lead to dysplasia or tumor development. Therefore, when one or more of such controls are lost or inhibited, abnormal overgrowth will occur and may lead to impairment of function and disease.
Cells are mainly induced into proliferation by growth factors or hormones that occupy specific receptors on the surface of the cell membrane, and are also known as extra-cellular ligands. Examples of growth factors are as such: epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblastic growth factor (FGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), or by hormones. PDGF and FGF act by regulating the phase G2 of the cell cycle and during mitosis. After mitosis, they act again stimulating the daughter cells to grow, thus leading them from G0 to G1. Therefore, FGF and PDGF are also termed competence factors, whereas EGF and IGF are termed progression factors, because they keep the process of cellular progression to mitosis going on. Growth factors are also classified (along with other molecules that promote the cell cycle) as pro-mitotic signals. Hormones are also pro-mitotic signals. For example, thyrotrophic hormone, one of the hormones produced by the pituitary gland, induces the proliferation of thyroid gland's cells. Another pituitary hormone, known as growth hormone or somatotrophic hormone (STH), is responsible by body growth during childhood and early adolescence, inducing the lengthening of the long bones and protein synthesis . Estrogens are hormones that do not occupy a membrane receptor, but instead, penetrate the cell and the nucleus, binding directly to specific sites in the DNA, thus inducing the cell cycle.
Anti-mitotic signals may have several different origins, such as cell-to-cell adhesion, factors of adhesion to the extracellular matrix, or soluble factor such as TGF beta (tumor growth factor beta), which inhibits abnormal cell proliferation, proteins p53, p16, p21, APC, pRb, etc. These molecules are the products of a class of genes called tumor suppressor genes. Oncogenes, until recently also known as proto-oncogenes, synthesize proteins that enhance the stimuli started by growth factors, amplifying the mitotic signal to the nucleus, and/or promoting the accomplishment of a necessary step of the cell cycle. When each phase of the cell cycle is completed, the proteins involved in that phase are degraded, so that once the next phase starts, the cell is unable to go back to the previous one. Next to the end of phase G1, the cycle is paused by tumor suppressor gene products, to allow verification and repair of DNA damage. When DNA damage is not repairable, these genes stimulate other intra-cellular pathways that induce the cell into suicide or apoptosis (also known as programmed cell death). To the end of phase G2, before the transition to mitosis, the cycle is paused again for a new verification and "decision": either mitosis or apoptosis.
Along each pro-mitotic and anti-mitotic intra-cellular signaling pathway, as well as along the apoptotic pathways, several gene products (proteins and enzymes ) are involved in an orderly sequence of activation and inactivation, forming complex webs of signal transmission and signal amplification to the nucleus. The general goal of such cascades of signals is to achieve the orderly progression of each phase of the cell cycle.
Interphase is a phase of cell growth and metabolic activity, without cell nuclear division, comprised of several stages or phases. During Gap 1 or G1 the cell resumes protein and RNA synthesis, which was interrupted during mitosis, thus allowing the growth and maturation of young cells to accomplish their physiologic function. Immediately following is a variable length pause for DNA checking and repair before cell cycle transition to phase S during which there is synthesis or semiconservative replication or synthesis of DNA. During Gap 2 or G2, there is increased RNA and protein synthesis, followed by a second pause for proofreading and eventual repairs in the newly synthesized DNA sequences before transition to Mitosis.
At the start of mitosis the chromosomes are already duplicated, with the sister-chromatids (identical chromosomes) clearly visible under a light microscope . Mitosis is subdivided into prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase.
During prophase there is a high condensation of chromatids, with the beginning of nucleolus disorganization and nuclear membrane disintegration, followed by the start of centrioles' migration to opposite cell poles. During metaphase the chromosomes organize at the equator of a spindle apparatus (microtubules), forming a structure termed metaphase plate. The sister-chromatids are separated and joined to different centromeres, while the microtubules forming the spindle are attached to a region of the centromere termed kinetochore. During anaphase there are spindles, running from each opposite kinetochore, that pull each set of chromosomes to their respective cell poles, thus ensuring that in the following phase each new cell will ultimately receive an equal division of chromosomes. During telophase, kinetochores and spindles disintegrate, the reorganization of nucleus begins, chromatin becomes less condensed, and the nucleus membrane start forming again around each set of chromosomes. The cytoskeleton is reorganized and the somatic cell has now doubled its volume and presents two organized nucleus.
Cytokinesis usually begins during telophase, and is the process of cytoplasmatic division. This process of division varies among species but in somatic cells, it occurs through the equal division of the cytoplasmatic content, with the plasma membrane forming inwardly a deep cleft that ultimately divides the parental cell in two new daughter cells.
The identification and detailed understanding of the many molecules involved in the cell cycle controls and intracellular signal transduction is presently under investigation by several research groups around the world. This knowledge is crucial to the development of new anti-cancer drugs as well as to new treatments for other genetic diseases, in which a gene over expression or deregulation may be causing either a chronic or an acute disease, or the impairment of a vital organ function. Scientists predict that the next two decades will be dedicated to the identification of gene products and their respective function in the cellular microenvironment. This new field of research is termed proteomics .
See also Cell cycle (Prokaryotic) genetic regulation of; Genetic regulation of eukaryotic cells; Genetic regulation of prokaryotic cells
Cell Cycle (Prokaryotic), Genetic Regulation of
Cell cycle (prokaryotic), genetic regulation of
Although prokaryotes do not have an organized nucleus and other complex organelles found in eukaryotic cells, prokaryotic organisms share some common features with eukaryotes as far as cell division is concerned. For example, they both replicate DNA in a semi conservative manner, and the segregation of the newly formed DNA molecules occurs before the cell division takes place through cytokinesis. Despite such similarities, the prokaryotic genome is stored in a single DNA molecule, whereas eukaryotes may contain a varied number of DNA molecules, specific to each species, seen in the interphasic nucleus as chromosomes . Prokaryotic cells also differ in other ways from eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotes do not have cytoskeleton and the DNA is not condensed during mitosis. The prokaryote chromosomes do not present histones, the complexes of histonic proteins that help to pack eukaryotic DNA into a condensate state. Prokaryotic DNA has one single promoter site that initiates replication, whereas eukaryotic DNA has multiple promoter sites. Prokaryotes have a lack of spindle apparatus (or microtubules), which are essential structures for chromosome segregation in eukaryotic cells. In prokaryotes, there are no membranes and organelles dividing the cytosol in different compartments. Although two or more DNA molecules may be present in a given prokaryotic cell, they are genetically identical. They may contain one extra circular strand of genes known as plasmid, much smaller than the genomic DNA, and plasmids may be transferred to another prokaryote through bacterial conjugation , a process known as horizontal gene transfer.
The prokaryotic method of reproduction is asexual and is termed binary fission because one cell is divided in two new identical cells. Some prokaryotes also have a plasmid. Genes in plasmids are extra-chromosomal genes and can either be separately duplicated by a class of gene known as transposons Type II, or simply passed on to another individual. Transposons Type I may transfer and insert one or more genes from the plasmid to the cell DNA or vice-versa causing mutation through genetic recombination . The chromosome is attached to a region of the internal side of the membrane, forming a nucleoide. Some bacterial cells do present two or more nucleoides, but the genes they contain are identical.
The prokaryotic cell cycle is usually a fast process and may occur every 20 minutes in favorable conditions. However, some bacteria , such as Mycobacterium leprae (the cause of leprosy ), take 12 days to accomplish replication in the host's leprous lesion. Replication of prokaryotic DNA, as well as of eukaryotic DNA, is a semi-conservative process, which means that each newly synthesized strand is paired with its complementary parental strand. Each daughter cell, therefore, receives a double-stranded circular DNA molecule that is formed by a new strand is paired with an old strand.
The cell cycle is regulated by genes encoding products (i.e., enzymes and proteins) that play crucial roles in the maintenance of an orderly sequence of events that ensures that each resultant daughter cell will inherit the same amount of genetic information. Cell induction into proliferation and DNA replication are controlled by specific gene products, such as enzyme DNA polymerase III, that binds to a promoter region in the circular DNA, initiating its replication. However, DNA polymerase requires the presence of a pre-existing strand of DNA, which serves as a template, as well as RNA primers, to initiate the polymerization of a new strand. Before replication starts, timidine-H3, (a DNA precursor) is added to a Y-shaped site where the double helices were separated, known as the replicating fork. The DNA strands are separated by enzyme helicases and kept apart during replication by single strand proteins (or ss DNA-binding proteins) that binds to DNA, while the enzyme topoisomerase further unwinds and elongates the two strands to undo the circular ring.
DNA polymerase always makes the new strand by starting from the extremity 5' and terminating at the extremity 3'. Moreover, the two DNA strands have opposite directions (i.e., they keep an anti-parallel arrangement to each other). Therefore, the new strand 5' to 3' that is complementary to the old strand 3' to 5' is synthesized in a continuous process (leading strand synthesis), whereas the other new strand (3' to 5') is synthesized in several isolated fragments (lagging strand synthesis) that will be later bound together to form the whole strand. The new 3' to 5' strand is complementary to the old 5' to 3'. However, the lagging fragments, known as Okazaki's fragments, are individually synthesized in the direction 5'to 3' by DNA polymerase III. RNA polymerases produce the RNA primers that help DNA polymerases to synthesize the leading strand. Nevertheless, the small fragments of the lagging strand have as primers a special RNA that is synthesized by another enzyme, the primase. Enzyme topoisomerase III does the proofreading of the newly transcribed sequences and eliminates those wrongly transcribed, before DNA synthesis may continue. RNA primers are removed from the newly synthesized sequences by ribonuclease H. Polymerase I fills the gaps and DNA ligase joins the lagging strands.
After DNA replication, each DNA molecule is segregated, i.e., separated from the other, and attached to a different region of the internal face of the membrane. The formation of a septum, or dividing internal wall, separates the cell into halves, each containing a nucleotide. The process of splitting the cell in two identical daughter cells is known as cytokinesis.
See also Bacterial growth and division; Biochemistry; Cell cycle (eukaryotic), genetic regulation of; Cell cycle and cell division; Chromosomes, eukaryotic; Chromosomes, prokaryotic; DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid); Enzymes; Genetic regulation of eukaryotic cells; Genetic regulation of prokaryotic cells; Genotype and phenotype; Molecular biology and molecular genetics