Archbishop of York; b. c. 1346; d. York, England, June 8, 1405. Born of a noble Yorkshire family, he is said to have studied arts at Oxford and law at Cambridge. He was doctor of both laws by 1379 and was chancellor of Cambridge University (1378–79). He was elected bishop of chichester in 1385, but King Richard II quashed the election. However, he did become bishop of coventry and Lichfield in 1386 and was made archbishop of york in 1398 through Richard's influence. He served Richard as emissary to Scotland and in Rome (where he petitioned unsuccessfully for Edward II's canonization), but was in the deputation that received Richard's resignation; he joined Thomas arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury, in enthroning King Henry IV (1399). Although closely associated with the rebel Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, Scrope was not openly opposed to the government until 1404, when he and Arundel protested parliamentary proposals to confiscate church property. In 1405 Scrope circulated a manifesto charging the King with injustice and demanding reforms. Northern insurgents met the royal army on Shipton Moor, where Scrope and others were captured by trickery. Henry appointed a trial commission headed by Chief Justice Sir William Gascoigne; but he, knowing the law, refused to try a prelate and was replaced. Arundel arrived to protest, but Scrope was summarily convicted of treason and executed, dying with exceptional courage. Pope innocent vii prepared a bull of excommunication against Scrope's murderers; but since England's support was needed against Avignon (see western schism), it remained unpublished. Scrope's tomb in York Minster became a center of pilgrimage, and Northerners called him saint and martyr. Contemporary chroniclers attest to his sanctity. His archiepiscopate saw completion of the rebuilding of York Minster choir.
Bibliography: j. h. wylie, History of England under Henry the Fourth, 4 v. (London 1884–98) v.2, for relevant chronicle sources. j. tait, The Dictionary of National Biography From the Earliest Times to 1900, 17:1082–85. a. b. emden, Biographical Register of the University of Oxford to A.D. 1500, 2:1659–60. a. b. emden, Biographical Register of the Scholars of the University of Cambridge before 1500, 513–514.
[r. w. hays]
"Scrope, Richard." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/scrope-richard
"Scrope, Richard." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Retrieved October 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/scrope-richard
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.