Skip to main content

Proudhon, Pierre Joseph°


PROUDHON, PIERRE JOSEPH ° (1809–1865), French Socialist and anti-Jewish theorist. For Proudhon, the Jew was the "source of evil," as "incarnated in the race of Shem" (Césarisme et christianisme, 1 (18832), 139). He accused the Jews of "having rendered the bourgeoisie, high or low, similar to them, all over Europe" (De la justice dans la Révolution et dans l'Eglise (1858), 458). In his "diary," published posthumously, he called them an "unsociable race, obstinate, infernal… the enemy of mankind. We should send this race back to Asia, or exterminate it" (Carnets, 2 (1961), 23, 337). Proudhon's unremitting hatred of the Jews was probably influenced by *Bonald and by *Fourier, but above all by his own xenophobic passion for France, which he saw as "invaded by the English, Germans, Belgians, Jews," and other foreigners (France et Rhin (18672), 258). In the France of the first half of the 19th century, Proudhon was the mainstay of a grass-roots socialism, which has been seen as an early version of National-Socialism.


L. Poliakov, Histoire de l'antisémitisme, 3 (1968), index; R.F. Byrnes, Anti-semitism in Modern France, 1 (1950), index; E. Silberner, Sozialisten zur Judenfrage (1962), index.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Proudhon, Pierre Joseph°." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . 20 Jul. 2019 <>.

"Proudhon, Pierre Joseph°." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . (July 20, 2019).

"Proudhon, Pierre Joseph°." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved July 20, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.