Luzki (Lutzki, Lucki), Joseph Solomon ben Moses (Yashar)
LUZKI (Lutzki, Lucki), JOSEPH SOLOMON BEN MOSES (Yashar)
LUZKI (Lutzki, Lucki), JOSEPH SOLOMON BEN MOSES (Yashar ) (1770–1844), Karaite scholar and public figure, born at Kukizow near Lwow. He lived at Lutsk (Volhynia), had disciples there, and was a judge in the municipal council; he knew Russian and Polish well. In 1802 he moved to Yevpatoriya in the Crimea by invitation of the heads of the community to become melammed and shofet. He remained in these offices about 40 years and had many disciples. Luzki went with the Ḥakham Simḥah *Babovich to St. Petersburg where they succeeded in obtaining exemption for the Karaites from compulsory military service, imposed on the Jews in 1827. A detailed account of their journey and activities is given by Luzki in Iggeret Teshu'at Yisrael (Yevpatoriya, 1840; with a Tatar translation by the author's brother-in-law, Abraham *Firkovich). A thanksgiving prayer he composed on that occasion was subsequently recited by the Karaites every year on the anniversary. In 1831 Luzki visited Ereẓ Israel with his wife.
His works include Sefer ha-Ḥinnukh le-Petaḥ Tikvah, a didactic manual in two parts: (a) Petaḥ ha-Tevah, a primer and Hebrew prayers for children with Tatar translation; (b) Zekher Rav, by Benjamin *Mussafia, with Luzki's translation of the Hebrew words into the Tatar language (Constantinople, 1831); and Tirat Kesef, a comprehensive supercommentary on the Sefer ha-Mivḥar by the Karaite *Aaron b. Joseph (printed with Sefer ha-Mivḥar, Gozleve, 1835). Luzki is also the author of a calendar for the years 1859 to 1901 (printed posthumously, in Yevpatoriya, 1858), and of liturgical poems, prayers, and hymns, some of which were incorporated in the Karaite prayer book.
A. Gottlober, Biqoret le-toldot a-Karaim (1865), 179; A. Firkovich, Avnei Zikkaron (1872), 4; S. Poznański, Karaite Literary Opponents of Saadiah Gaon (1908), 90; Mann, Texts, 2 (1935), s.v.Jos. Sol. b. Moses Lucki. Add. Bibliograpy: Miller, Joseph Solomon Luzki, Iggeret Teshu'at Yisrael (1993).
[Isaak Dov Ber Markon]