LEVINE, RAPHAEL (1938– ), Israeli scientist. Levine was born in Alexandria, Egypt, but was taken to Ereẓ Israel byhis parents in 1939. After getting his master's degree at the Hebrew University in 1960, he studied at Nottingham University, where he received his doctorate, and also received a second doctorate from Oxford in 1966. In 1968 he was appointed professor of theoretical chemistry at the Hebrew University. Levine was awarded the Israel Prize for exact sciences in 1974 for his important contributions to theoretical chemistry, particularly in the field of molecular dynamics, but especially for his work Quantum Mechanics of Molecular Rate Processes (1969). He was awarded the Wolf Prize in 1988, the Rothschild Prize in 1992, and the emet Prize in 2002. Levine is a member of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities and a foreign member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, the Academia Europaea, and other important organizations.