Joyeuse, Henri, Duc de
JOYEUSE, HENRI, DUC DE
Comte du Bouchage, Capuchin Friar Minor, known in religion as Ange de Joyeuse, a notable figure in the civil and religious life of France at the end of the 16th and beginning of 17th centuries; b. Couiza, Languedoc, September or October, 1562; d. Rivoli, Sept. 28, 1608. He was the third son of Guillaume de Joyeuse, lieutenant general for the king in Languedoc. His family was stanchly Catholic and loyalist, a fact that greatly influenced his career. In 1577 he entered the College of Navarre and from there, following his two elder brothers, joined the mignons, the exclusive circle of friends surrounding Henri III. He was appointed Grand Master of the Royal Wardrobe in 1579, and won distinction that year in a military engagement at La Fère. The king influenced him to marry Catherine de Nogaret de la Valette, sister of the Duke of Épernon. From this marriage a daughter was born. As governor of Anjou, in 1585 Joyeuse took the town of Angers without loss from Condé's troops, for which he was awarded the governorship of Touraine, Maine, and Perche. His wife died in August of 1587, and he, having never become attached to a worldly career, entered the Capuchins in Paris the next month. The year following his profession in 1588, he was ordained, and he went to Italy to study theology. He returned to France, but was drawn from the cloister to partake actively in the Wars of Religion.
After the death of his three brothers, the people of Toulouse desired a Joyeuse to lead them. Cardinal François de Joyeuse, Archbishop of Narbonne, refused on the ground of military inexperience; it was left to Père Ange, now rightful duke of Joyeuse, to become leader of the League in Languedoc. Ange accepted in 1592, provided that he received papal approval. Meanwhile he began reorganizing the local forces of the League. His position was eventually regularized by Clement VIII, who sanctioned his exclaustration and transference to the company of priests of the Order of Malta. In 1596 he was reconciled to Henry IV, who appointed him Lieutenant-governor of Languedoc and marshal of France. He reentered the Capuchins on March 25, 1599. His remaining years were spent in the apostolate and in the office of provincial, to which he was appointed twice. He was much appreciated as a preacher and spiritual adviser, his teaching being influenced evidently by Benedict of Canfield (William Benedict fitch). In 1608, while attending the general chapter of his Order in Rome, he was elected a definitor general, the first non-Italian to be so promoted. He died on the way back to France and was buried in the Rue St. Honoré, Paris.
Bibliography: j. brousse, The Lives of Ange de Joyeuse and Benet Canfield, ed. t. a. birrell from r. rockwood's tr. of 1623 (New York 1959). father cuthbert, The Capuchins, 2 v. (London 1928). l. de gonzague, Le Père Ange de Joyeuse, Frère Mineur Capucin, Maréchal de France, 1563–1608 (Paris 1928). agathange de paris, Un Cas de jurisprudence pontificale: Le P. Ange de Joyeuse, Capucin et Maréchal de France (Assisi 1936). Lexicon Capuccinum (Rome 1951) 73–74 gives full bibliography.