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The reproaches directed against God's own people, and appearing as utterances of Jesus during the Adoration

of the Cross in the Roman liturgy of good friday. The first part of the Improperia consists of three verses (Popule meus, Quia eduxi te per desertum, and Quid ultra ), including the trisagion. This first part is found in the Antiphonale Sylvanectense (of Senlis; c. 880; ed. R. Hesbert, Antiphonale missarum sextuplex [Brussels 1935]) and in the Pontificale Romano-Germanicum (c. 950; ed. M. Hittorp, De catholicae ecclesiae divinis officiis [Cologne 1568]). The second part, which is not found until the 11th century, consists of nine verses, all of which begin with the word Ego (I). A Gallican origin has been claimed for the plain chant melodies (see gallican chant).

Bibliography: h. a. schmidt, Hebdomada Sancta, 2 v. (Rome 195657) 2:794796. e. werner, "Zur Textgeschichte der Improperia," Festschrift Bruno Stäblein, ed. m. ruhnke (Kassel 1967) 27486. w. schÜtz, "'Was habe ich dir getan, mein Volk?': die Wurzeln der Karfreitagsimproperien in der alten Kirche," Jahrbuch für Liturgik und Hymnologie, 13 (1968) 138. j. drumbl, "Die Improperien der lateinischen Liturgie," Archiv für Liturgiewissenschaft, 15 (1973) 68100. m. marx-weber, "Die Improperien im Repertoire der Cappella sistina," Studien zur Musikgeschichte: eine Festschrift für Ludwig Finscher, ed. a. laubenthal (Kassel 1995) 15762.

[e. j. gratsch/

l. j. wagner/eds.]