German philosopher and theologian; b. Berlin, Feb. 18, 1847; d. Graz, April 24, 1928. He became doctor of civil and Canon Law (1869) and of theology (1880), was ordained (1872), and studied at Berlin, Bonn, Göttingen, Tübingen, Würzburg, Breslau, and Rome. He taught philosophy at Regensburg (1875) and Liverpool (1877), apologetics and general ethics at Münster (1884), and dogmatic theology at Breslau (1888) and Vienna (1900–11). Commer was cofounder, editor, and frequent contributor to the Jahrbuch für Philosophie und spekulative Theologie (Münster 1886), later called Divus Thomas (Fribourg 1914) and then the Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie und Theologie (1954). He is remembered for his critical examination of the works of the Catholic reformer Hermann schell, for which he won the respect of Pope Pius X (1907), and for his answer to Professors F. Kiefl and K. Hennemann, defenders of Schell (1909). In his philosophical and theological writings Commer gives evidence of his strong adherence to Aristotle, St. Albert the Great, and St. Thomas Aquinas; he is regarded as a faithful expositor of thomism.
See Also: scholasticism, 3.
Bibliography: Works. Die Katholizität nach dem heiligen Augustin (Breslau 1873); Die philosophische Wissenschaft (Berlin 1882); System der Philosophie, 4 v. (Münster 1883–86); Die Logik (Paderborn 1897); Hermann Schell und der fortschrittliche Katholizismu (Vienna 1907); Die jünste Phase des Schellstreites (Vienna 1909). Literature. s. szabÓ, Divus Thomas, 3d series 6 (1928) 257–291. j. hasenfuss, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. j. hofer and k. rahner (2d, new ed. Freiburg 1957–65) 3:20. Der Grosse Herder 2 2:925. Enciclopedia filosofica (Venice-Rome 1957) 1:1111.
[f. j. roensch]
"Commer, Ernst." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 20, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/commer-ernst
"Commer, Ernst." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Retrieved January 20, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/commer-ernst
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.