German philosopher and theologian; b. Berlin, Feb. 18, 1847; d. Graz, April 24, 1928. He became doctor of civil and Canon Law (1869) and of theology (1880), was ordained (1872), and studied at Berlin, Bonn, Göttingen, Tübingen, Würzburg, Breslau, and Rome. He taught philosophy at Regensburg (1875) and Liverpool (1877), apologetics and general ethics at Münster (1884), and dogmatic theology at Breslau (1888) and Vienna (1900–11). Commer was cofounder, editor, and frequent contributor to the Jahrbuch für Philosophie und spekulative Theologie (Münster 1886), later called Divus Thomas (Fribourg 1914) and then the Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie und Theologie (1954). He is remembered for his critical examination of the works of the Catholic reformer Hermann schell, for which he won the respect of Pope Pius X (1907), and for his answer to Professors F. Kiefl and K. Hennemann, defenders of Schell (1909). In his philosophical and theological writings Commer gives evidence of his strong adherence to Aristotle, St. Albert the Great, and St. Thomas Aquinas; he is regarded as a faithful expositor of thomism.
See Also: scholasticism, 3.
Bibliography: Works. Die Katholizität nach dem heiligen Augustin (Breslau 1873); Die philosophische Wissenschaft (Berlin 1882); System der Philosophie, 4 v. (Münster 1883–86); Die Logik (Paderborn 1897); Hermann Schell und der fortschrittliche Katholizismu (Vienna 1907); Die jünste Phase des Schellstreites (Vienna 1909). Literature. s. szabÓ, Divus Thomas, 3d series 6 (1928) 257–291. j. hasenfuss, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. j. hofer and k. rahner (2d, new ed. Freiburg 1957–65) 3:20. Der Grosse Herder 2 2:925. Enciclopedia filosofica (Venice-Rome 1957) 1:1111.
[f. j. roensch]