Skip to main content

Cárdenas, Juan de


Jesuit moral theologian; b. Seville, 1613; d. there, June 6, 1684. He entered the Society of Jesus at the age of 14, and for many years he held various administrative offices, including those of novice master, rector, and provincial. He wrote many short ascetical treatises, but his fame comes chiefly from his work in moral theology. His Crisis theologica bipartita (Lyons 1670) examined many of the moral opinions prevalent at his time, especially those involving laxism and rigorism. This work was strongly attacked by the French Dominican James of St. Dominic, and in the 1680 edition Cárdenas reasserted his position in a supplement that defended moderate probabilism. Although he presented a clear and strong line of argumentation, and although his opinions were moderate and sound, the work was weakened by constant digressions referring to his rigorist adversaries, who included Vincent baron and Jean Baptiste gonet. The Venetian editions of 1694, 1700, and 1710 also contained an explanation of the 65 propositions condemned by Pope Innocent XI in 1679. This part was also published as a separate volume entitled Crisis theologica in qua plures selectae difficultates ex morali theologia ad lydium veritatis lapidem revocantur ex regula morum posita a SS. D.N. Innocentis XI P.M. (Seville 1687). Cárdenas holds an important place in the history of casuistry and of probabilism.

Bibliography: p. bernard, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique (Paris 190350) 2.2:171314. Nomenclatur literarius theologiae catholicae 2.1:231. c. sommervogel et. al, Bibliotèque de la Compagnie de Jésus (Brussels-Paris 18901932) 2:734737.

[f. c. lehner]

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Cárdenas, Juan de." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . 24 Mar. 2019 <>.

"Cárdenas, Juan de." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . (March 24, 2019).

"Cárdenas, Juan de." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Retrieved March 24, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.