BLANCKENHORN, MAX° (1861–1947), German geologist who became famous principally for his research and publications on the geology of the Near East, Syria, and particularly Ereẓ Israel. Blanckenhorn visited the countries of the Near East many times and worked together with A. *Aaronsohn and the zoologist Israel *Aharoni. He was also a friend of Otto *Warburg, with whom he worked to deepen and spread knowledge of the natural resources of Ereẓ Israel. As the then virtually only expert on the geology of Ereẓ Israel, Blanckenhorn often advised Zionist leaders on matters concerning economic resources of the country. From 1889 to 1940 he published more than 50 pieces of research on the general and structural geology of the Near East, on the stratigraphy, paleontology, prehistory, seismology, and climatology, and on mineral resources such as phosphates, bitumen, and the salts of the Dead Sea. He prepared the first geological maps of the Jerusalem area (1905), of the Near East (in International Map of Europe containing the Mediterranean area, 1902–11), and of Ereẓ Israel on a scale of 1:700,000 (1912). Of great importance are his paleontological monographs on the fossils from Ereẓ Israel and Syria. A detailed list of his publications on the Middle East appeared in Israel Journal of Earth-Sciences.
A. Avnimelech, in: Israel Journal of Earth-Sciences, 12 (1963/64), 1–7.
[Moshe A. Avnimelech]