'AYIN (Heb. ע; עַיִן) (fricative pharyngeal), the 16th letter of the Hebrew alphabet; its numerical value is 70. Its earliest representation is the acrophonic pictograph of an eye (ʿayin) . The pupil of the eye disappears already in the early evolution of the letter. In the later Proto-Canaanite, Phoenician, Hebrew, and Samaritan on the one hand and in South-Arabic and Ethiopic on the other, though with variations, the ʿayin has a circular shape. Thus also in Greek and Latin, in which the consonantal value of the letter turns into the vowel "o".
In the Aramaic script as early as the seventh century b.c.e. the top of the circle opens: (compare with bet, dalet, and resh). It is written mainly with two bars (first the left and then the right) meeting at the base . As there is a cursive tendency to draw the pen toward the next letter, the right bar becomes longer and longer → → , and thus the classical shape of this letter develops, which is known in the Jewish scripts until the present: . The Nabatean and Palmyrene scripts also adopt this Aramaic letter: the Arabic develops through the Nabatean cursive → → → , and the Syriac through the Palmyrene cursive → → → . The Ashkenazic Jewish cursive develops as follows: → → → . See *Alphabet, Hebrew.
"'Ayin." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 16, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ayin
"'Ayin." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved January 16, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ayin
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.