A bull published Dec. 19, 1513, by Leo X in the eighth session of the Fifth Lateran Council. Three propositions were designated heretical: that the soul is mortal; that all humanity shares a common soul; and that truth may be double, i.e., that a certain proposition may be true in terms of rationalistic philosophy even if it is not in accord with truth as disclosed by revelation. The bull expressly affirms that each man has an individual and immortal soul. The condemned propositions concerning the soul were conspicuously defended by Pietro pomponazzi in his De immortalitate animi in 1516. The notion of a double truth, associated with nominalism, had been suggested by nicholas of cusa in his De docta ignorantia in 1440. To offset paganistic ideas derived from classical studies, the bull stipulated that clergy intending to pursue advanced philosophical and literary studies should first devote five years to theology and canon law.
Bibliography: w. betzendÖrfer, Die Lehre von der zweifachen Wahrheit (Tübingen 1924). f. vernet, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. a. vacant et al., 15 v. (Paris 1903–50; Tables générales 1951–) 8.2:2681–83.
[d. r. campbell]