AḤERIM (Heb. אֲחֵרִים; lit. "others"), a pseudonym for sages whose teachings are quoted anonymously in the tannaitic literature. According to the Talmud (Hor. 13b, 14a), aḥerim was used as a pseudonym for R. *Meir so that his teachings would not be propounded under his name in the bet ha-midrash – this, in punishment for his attempt, together with R. *Nathan, to assail the dignity and authority of the nasi, *Simeon b. Gamalielii, and to remove him from office. The punishment, however, did not remain in force very long, the Talmud continuing that on one occasion Judah ha-Nasi, son of Simeon b. Gamaliel ii, was teaching a certain Mishnah to his son Simeon with the words, "aḥerim say," whereupon Simeon said to his father, "Who are they whose waters we drink but whose names we do not mention?" at which Judah deferred to his son's opinion and in place of "aḥerim say" stated explicitly, "On Rabbi Meir's behalf it is said" (ibid.). In point of fact, in the Mishnah, which Judah edited, the expression "aherim say" does not occur. The tosafists, however, have pointed out the difficulty in the identification of "aherim" with Meir, for in many passages the words "aḥerim say" occur in opposition to Meir's view. One tosafist suggested that only those teachings which Meir received from his teacher, *Elisha b. Avuyah, later called Aḥer, were introduced under this pseudonym. The tosafists themselves, however, found this explanation unsatisfactory, and suggested instead that those opinions which he changed after he was punished and referred to as aḥerim are cited under this pseudonym, while his earlier views appear under his own name (Tos., Sot. 12a).
Hyman, Toledot, 138.
"Aḥerim." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 10, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/aherim
"Aḥerim." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved December 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/aherim
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.