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ACHSHAPH

ACHSHAPH (Akhshaf ; Heb. אַכְשָׁף), ancient Canaanite town, usually mentioned together with Acre in Egyptian documents from the Middle and New Kingdoms (cf. the Execration Texts of early 18th century b.c.e.), the list of cities conquered by Thutmosis iii (c. 1469 b.c.e.), the El-Amarna letters (14th century b.c.e.), and the Papyrus Anastasi (13th century b.c.e.). It was in the territory allotted to Asher in the period of the Israelite conquest (Josh. 19:25). The king of Achshaph is listed among the 31 kings who fought Joshua (ibid. 12:20); he participated in the battle at the Waters of Merom (ibid. 11:1). The various sources indicate a location in the southern part of the Plain of Acre, perhaps one of the more prominent of its many ancient tells: Tell Kisan 6 mi. (10 km.) S.E. of Acre, or Khirbet al-Harbaj, E. of Haifa near Kefar Ḥasidim.

bibliography:

Maisler (Mazar), in: bjpes, 6 (1939), 151–7; Alt, in: pjb, 20 (1924), 26; 24 (1928), 60; J. Garstang, Joshua, Judges (1931), 98–99, 354; Albright, in: basor, 61 (1936), 24; 81 (1941), 19; 83 (1941), 33; em, s.v.; Press, Ereẓ, 1 (1946), 19.

[Michael Avi-Yonah]