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Uṣūl (Arab. pl. of aṣl). Root or principle. In Islam, the word is used for a branch of learning, especially uṣūl al-hadīth, uṣūl al-fīqh, and uṣūl al-kalām (earlier uṣūl al-dīn); and also for the sources of those disciplines, Qurʾān, ḥadīth (together, sunna), ijmaʿ, and qiyās at least: claims to further sources would be disputed. Uṣūliy(y)a is used for what in English might be called fundamentalism.