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Mullā ṣadr al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm Shīrāzi

Mullā Ṣadr al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm Shīrāzi (known as Mullā Ṣadrā) (1571–1640 (AH 979–1050)). Shiʿite philosopher. During his life, there was contest between those who did and did not want a philosophized account of Shiʿa Islam. Mullā Ṣadra was clearly of the former, achieving a profound reconciliation of Islam with Aristotelianism and gnostic systems—though as a result he underwent periods of forced and voluntary exile. In … al-Asfār al-Arbaʿah (The Four Journeys), he described the process by which a spiritual journey can be made back to the Source without becoming fused with it: (i) detachment from the world and the body; (ii) penetration of the divine names (and attributes) of the Qurʾān; (iii) fanā' (annihilation of one's own attributes as a self-possessed individual); and (iv) the return in utter independence (because wholly dependent on God) to bring guidance to others (jalwah).

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