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Hsiao (Chin., ‘old age’ + ‘son’). Filial piety, a virtue considered most important in E. Asian social ethics, influenced by the school of Confucius, and by the ancient cult of ancestral veneration. The Classic of Filial Piety (Hsiao Ching) has been associated with Tseng-tzu, a direct disciple of the sage himself. See also ETHICS (CONFUCIANISM).