Skip to main content

Hakuin

Hakuin (c.1685–1768). Ordination name of Nagasawa Ekaku, a major Japanese Zen master, painter, and poet. Hakuin is especially noted for his vigorous revitalization of Rinzai-shū spiritual training and for his bold style of inkwash painting. His teacher, Dōkyō Etan, refused to recognize an early experience of satori, and set him to more severe Zen training. In his own teaching, he emphasized the three pillars of Zen (see DAI-FUNSHI) and kōan practice: he is the source of the most frequently (in the W.) quoted kōan, ‘What is the sound of one hand clapping?’, which is known as sekishu. He was abbot of several monasteries, including Ryūtaki-ji, (active to the present day), and he emphasized disciplined meditation at all times (not just at chosen times) in order to achieve kensho.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Hakuin." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Aug. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Hakuin." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 16, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hakuin

"Hakuin." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Retrieved August 16, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/hakuin

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.