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Hakuin (c.1685–1768). Ordination name of Nagasawa Ekaku, a major Japanese Zen master, painter, and poet. Hakuin is especially noted for his vigorous revitalization of Rinzai-shū spiritual training and for his bold style of inkwash painting. His teacher, Dōkyō Etan, refused to recognize an early experience of satori, and set him to more severe Zen training. In his own teaching, he emphasized the three pillars of Zen (see DAI-FUNSHI) and kōan practice: he is the source of the most frequently (in the W.) quoted kōan, ‘What is the sound of one hand clapping?’, which is known as sekishu. He was abbot of several monasteries, including Ryūtaki-ji, (active to the present day), and he emphasized disciplined meditation at all times (not just at chosen times) in order to achieve kensho.

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