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Adhyāropa (Skt., ‘false covering’). The way in which in Hinduism, illusory or false understandings impose themselves on what is truly the case, which ultimately must be Brahmān. The classic example is that given by Śaṅkara of a rope on a path which is believed to be a snake, an error which arises from avidyā (ignorance). It follows that release from ignorance requires instructed attention to what is real, and to the ways leading to that knowledge.