Summers, Lawrence Henry
Lawrence Henry Summers, 1954–, U.S. economist, government official, and educator, b. New Haven, Conn. Educated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Harvard, he taught at MIT and in 1983 became the youngest tenured professor in Harvard's history. He served on the President's Council of Economic Advisors in 1982–83 during the Reagan administration, edited the Quarterly Journal of Economics in 1984–90, and in 1991–93 was chief economist of the World Bank. He left Harvard in 1993 to become under secretary for international affairs in the Treasury Dept. during the Clinton administration. He was deputy secretary under Robert Rubin from 1995 until 1999, when he succeeded Rubin as secretary (1999–2001). Summers became president of Harvard in 2001. His contentious relations with many in the faculty, and a 2005 controversy sparked by his suggestion that the presence of fewer women in upper-level science and math positions was the result of innate differences between men and women, led to his resignation as president in 2006; he remained a professor there. From 2009 to 2010 he was director of the National Economic Council under President Barack Obama.
"Summers, Lawrence Henry." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 21, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/summers-lawrence-henry
"Summers, Lawrence Henry." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved November 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/summers-lawrence-henry
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.