Spínola, António Sebastião Ribeiro de
António Sebastião Ribeiro de Spínola (əntô´nyŏŏ səbəstyouN´ rēbĕē´rŏŏ dĬ spē´nŏŏlə), 1910–96, Portuguese army officer and political leader. Active in the colonial wars in Africa after 1961, he was commander in chief and governor of Portuguese Guinea from 1968 to 1972 and then served as deputy chief of staff of the Portuguese army. In Feb., 1974, he published Portugual and the Future in which he asserted that Portugal could not win a military victory in Africa. His book led to his dismissal from his army post in March. In April an army coup that ousted Premier Marcello Caetano named him as its leader. Shortly afterward he became provisional president, welcoming liberals and socialists into the cabinet. After the withdrawal of the centrists from the cabinet in July, however, the young military officers who had headed the April coup began to move the new regime in a more radical direction. Spínola's attempt to rally support against them in Sept. failed, and he resigned as president. Spínola became a focal point for the opposition and was forced to flee Portugal after being accused of having organized a counterrevolutionary coup in Mar., 1975. He returned from exile in 1976 but ceased to play a political role.
"Spínola, António Sebastião Ribeiro de." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/spinola-antonio-sebastiao-ribeiro-de
"Spínola, António Sebastião Ribeiro de." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved March 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/spinola-antonio-sebastiao-ribeiro-de
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.