Skip to main content

Snyder, Gary

Gary Snyder, 1930–, American poet, b. San Francisco. Associated with the beat generation of the 1950s, he lived (1956–68) in Japan, where he trained as a Zen monk. His poetry, influenced by Zen Buddhism and by Native American culture, celebrates the peace found in nature and decries its destruction; volumes include Myths and Texts (1960), Turtle Island (1974; Pulitzer Prize), Axe Handles (1983), No Nature: New and Selected Poems (1992), the epic Mountains and Rivers without End (1996, repr. 2008), and Danger on Peaks (2004). Snyder has written numerous essays, and his influential treatise Four Changes (1969) is an early expression of the environmental movement. He taught (1986–2001) at the Univ. of California, Davis.

See his Look Out: A Selection of Writings (2002); studies by K. White (1975), B. Steuding (1976), B. Almon (1979), C. Molesworth (1983), T. Dean (1991), P. D. Murphy, ed. (1990) and as author (1991 and 2000), R. Schuler (1994), and T. Gray (2006).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Snyder, Gary." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 15 Dec. 2018 <>.

"Snyder, Gary." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (December 15, 2018).

"Snyder, Gary." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved December 15, 2018 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.