Skip to main content

Middleton, Conyers

Conyers Middleton, 1683–1750, English clergyman, one of the earliest English rationalistic theologians. A fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, he became known through his disputes with Richard Bentley, master of Trinity. Middleton was made principal librarian of Cambridge in 1721. A storm of protest followed his Letter from Rome, Showing an Exact Conformity between Popery and Paganism (1729). It was in his controversy with Daniel Waterland over the historical accuracy of the Bible that doubts about his orthodoxy were raised. The Life of Cicero (1741) brought the author wide recognition, but later critics charged that it owed much to a work by William Bellenden. He was regarded as a latitudinarian (i.e., one who advocates opening the church to a broad spectrum of beliefs), an attitude plainly shown in his Free Inquiry into the Miraculous Powers (1749), concerning the claims to miraculous powers in the church; his view was severely criticized. His Miscellaneous Works (4 vol., 1752) include many of his writings.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Middleton, Conyers." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 17 Dec. 2018 <>.

"Middleton, Conyers." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (December 17, 2018).

"Middleton, Conyers." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved December 17, 2018 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.