Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus
John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder (hĕk´əvĕldər), 1743–1823, Moravian missionary in the United States, b. Bedford, England. Settling (1754) in Bethlehem, Pa., with his parents, he later was indentured to a cedar cooper, while acting occasionally as a messenger to the Native Americans on the Susquehanna. By 1771 he was an accredited missionary and assistant to David Zeisberger. After years with the natives of Pennsylvania who had been removed to Ohio, he retired to Bethlehem, Pa. (1786), but he aided the U.S. government on several occasions with Native American treaties. In 1801 he managed the tribal lands at Gnadenhutten, and he supervised the removal of the indigenous people to Canada. He spent his last years writing numerous accounts of Native American life, notably his Account of the History, Manners and Customs of the Indian Nations, Who Once Inhabited Pennsylvania (1819).
See his journals, Thirty Thousand Miles with John Heckewelder (ed. by P. Wallace, 1958).
"Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 23, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/heckewelder-john-gottlieb-ernestus
"Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved September 23, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/heckewelder-john-gottlieb-ernestus
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.