Skip to main content

Grinnell, George Bird

George Bird Grinnell (grənĕl´), 1849–1938, American naturalist and student of Native American life, b. Brooklyn, N.Y., grad. Yale (B.A., 1870; Ph.D., 1880). He accompanied Custer's Black Hills expedition as naturalist (1874), was with William Ludlow's expedition to Yellowstone Park (1875), and was a member of the Harriman Alaska expedition in 1899. He was editor (1876–1911) of Forest and Stream and was prominent in preservation of wildlife and in conservation movements. He organized the first Audubon Society and was an organizer of the New York Zoological Society. In 1885 he discovered the glacier in Montana that now bears his name and was influential in legislation that led to the establishment (1910) of Glacier National Park. He is best known, however, for his books on the Plains culture area, such as Pawnee Hero Stories (1889), The Story of the Indian (1895), The Fighting Cheyennes (1915), and The Cheyenne Indians (1923).

See his selected papers ed. by J. F. Reiger (1972).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Grinnell, George Bird." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 13 Dec. 2018 <>.

"Grinnell, George Bird." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (December 13, 2018).

"Grinnell, George Bird." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved December 13, 2018 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.