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centipede

centipede, common name for members of a single class, Chilopoda, of the phylum Arthropoda. Centipedes are the most familiar of the myriapodous arthropods, which consist of five groups of arthropods that had a separate origin from other arthropods. Centipedes are widely distributed in temperate and tropical lands, living in the soil or surface litter, and under logs or rocks. The largest species, Scolopendra gigantea, may reach 12 in. (30 cm) in length; many other tropical species are over 6 in. (15 cm) long. Temperate species are usually only about 1 in. (2.5 cm) long. The flattened body is divided into a head and a trunk composed of segments, or somites. The head bears long antennae, jaws, and two pairs of maxillae used for food-handling. Although the name centipede means "hundred-legged," the average is actually about 35 pairs of legs, one pair on each body segment except for the last two, the pregenital and genital segments. The appendages of the trunk's first segment are modified into claws that are equipped with poison glands and are used to kill or stun prey. Larger centipedes can cause a painful bite, but the poison is not powerful enough to cause death in humans. Centipedes are chiefly nocturnal and predominantly carnivorous, feeding on insects or other small arthropods, though the largest species can kill small vertebrates. Sexes are separate, and some species have extensive courtship ceremonies. Members of the orders Lithobiomorpha and Scutigeromorpha have 15 pairs of legs as adults. These centipedes release eggs singly in the soil. Not all of the body segments are present at the time of hatching, and the young add somites and pairs of legs as they molt. Lithobiomorphs are widely distributed in temperate and subtropical regions. The swift scutigeromorphs have very long legs; the last pair is often extended to the rear, serving as posterior tactile appendages. Although especially abundant in the tropics, they include Scutigera forceps, the rather common house centipede of temperate climates. The house centipede has long, delicate legs and compound eyes. It feeds on roaches, clothes moths, and other insects. Members of the orders Geophilomorpha and Scolopendromorpha produce clusters of eggs, which are guarded while they develop. A full set of body segments and legs is present at hatching. Geophilomorphs have very long, slender bodies with from 31 to over 180 pairs of short legs. They are burrowing forms and are found in the soil from temperate to tropical regions. The scolopendromorphs are also widely distributed, but are more abundant in the tropics. They have from 21 to 23 pairs of legs and include the largest and most colorful centipede species.

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Chilopoda

Chilopoda (centipedes; phylum Arthropoda, subphylum Atelocerata) A class of uniramous arthropods that have segmented bodies with one pair of legs to each segment. Some centipedes are adapted to burrowing in soil but most run on the surface. All are believed to be predators. The head bears long antennae and beneath the mouth-parts there is a large pair of claws (maxillipeds, forming part of the first body segment) that inject poison. Below the mandibles a pair of maxillae forms a functional lip, overlain by a second pair of maxillae. The name, Chilopoda, is derived from the Greek cheilos, lip, and pod-, foot. There are about 3000 species, found world-wide, and grouped in two subclasses (Epimorpha and Anamorpha) and four principal orders: Geophilomorpha; Scolopendromorpha; Lithobiomorpha; and Scutigeromorpha.

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Chilopoda

Chilopoda A class of wormlike terrestrial arthropods belonging to the phylum Uniramia and comprising the centipedes. These are characterized by a distinct head, bearing a single pair of relatively long antennae and one pair of poison jaws, and 15–177 body segments, each bearing one pair of similar legs. Centipedes are fast-moving predators found in damp environments. See also Myriapoda.

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centipede

centipede (lit. hundred-legged) Common name for many arthropods of the class Chilopoda. Found in warm and temperate regions, they have flattened, segmented bodies. Most centipedes have about 70 legs (one pair per segment). Many tropical species are 15–30cm (6–12in) long; temperate ones are about 2.5cm (1in). Fast-moving predators, they eat small insects and other invertebrates.

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centipede

cen·ti·pede / ˈsentəˌpēd/ • n. a predatory myriapod invertebrate (class Chilopoda, several orders) with a flattened elongated body composed of many segments. Most segments bear a single pair of legs.

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centipedes

centipedes See Chilopoda.

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centipedes

centipedes See CHILOPODA.

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centipede

centipedeaccede, bead, Bede, bleed, breed, cede, concede, creed, deed, Eid, exceed, feed, Gide, God speed, greed, he'd, heed, impede, interbreed, intercede, Jamshid, knead, lead, mead, Mede, meed, misdeed, mislead, misread, need, plead, proceed, read, rede, reed, Reid, retrocede, screed, secede, seed, she'd, speed, stampede, steed, succeed, supersede, Swede, tweed, weak-kneed, we'd, weed •breastfeed • greenfeed • dripfeed •chickenfeed • spoonfeed • nosebleed •Nibelungenlied • invalid • Ganymede •Runnymede • airspeed • millipede •velocipede • centipede • Siegfried •filigreed • copyread • crossbreed •proofread • flaxseed • hayseed •rapeseed • linseed • pumpkinseed •aniseed • oilseed • birdseed • ragweed •knapweed • seaweed • chickweed •stinkweed • blanket weed • bindweed •pondweed • duckweed • tumbleweed •fireweed • waterweed • silverweed

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Centipede

CENTIPEDE

CENTIPEDE , called in the Bible marbeh raglayim ("many-footed"). It is included among the "swarming things," which it is forbidden to eat (Lev. 11:42). According to Targum Pseudo-Jonathan and rabbinic tradition, the reference is to the nadal (centipedes; Sifra 10:10). Several species of centipede are found in Israel, the most common being the species Scolopendra cingulata, which has 42 legs and 22 segments, is up to 8 in. (about 20 cm.) long, and feeds on insects and earthworms. The name marbeh raglayim may also refer to the class Diplopoda (millipedes) which has two pairs of legs to each of its segments and lives on decayed organic matter.

bibliography:

J. Feliks, Animal World of the Bible (1962), 134; J. Margolin, Zo'ologyah, 1 (1961), 136–40; Lewysohn, Zool, 322ff. add. bibliography: Feliks, Ha-Ẓome'aḥ, 249.

[Jehuda Feliks]

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Centipede

Centipede woof! 2005 (PG-13)

A party of spelunkers encounter, yup, you guessed it, killer centipedes. But the caves are so dark that the actors and centipedes are rarely seen. When the creatures do show up, they look like killer sock-puppets. Too goofy and takes itself too seriously. 90m/C DVD . George Foster, Larry Casey, Margaret Cash, Trevor Murphy, Matthew Pohlson, Danielle Kirlin, Steve Herd; D: Gregory Gieras; W: Gregory Gieras; C: Ajayan Vincent; M: Tom Batoy, Franco Tortora. CABLE

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Centipedes

Centipedes

Centipedes (phylum Arthropoda, class Chilopoda) occur throughout the world in both temperate and tropical regions, living in soil and humus and beneath fallen logs, bark, and stones. Because they lack a hard outer skeleton, centipedes are confined to moist environments in order to maintain their water balance. Many species are therefore active only at night, remaining sheltered during the day. Most centipedes are active on the surface, but some of the more slender species are capable of burrowing in loose soils.

Four main orders of centipedes have been recognized with some 3,000 species described so far. Among these, there is considerable variation in size, color, and behavior. One of the largest species recorded is Scolopendra gigantea from Latin America, which reaches a length of 10 inches (26 cm). Most tropical species are distinguished by their bright colorsred, yellow, green, blue or various combinations of these, while temperate-dwelling centipedes tend to be a reddish brown. Many of the bold color combinations have evolved to deter potential predators. Such vivid yet simple colors advertise one of the following: that the animals can sting, inflict a painful or poisonous bite, produce a foul taste if eaten, or irritate the skin. In the case of centipedes, all of these hold true: an inquisitive animal may receive a small injection of poison from special claws on the head, a painful pinch from the last pair of legs, or may be covered in foul acids produced from a series of glands along the body.

All centipedes are instantly recognizable by their segmented body, each segment of which bear a single pair of legs. The number of legs varies considerably according to speciesfrom 15 to as many as 170 pairs. The legs, however, are not always of similar length: in some Scutigeromorpha species the posterior legs may be twice as long as those nearer the head. With so many legs, people have often wondered how centipedes manage to coordinate their movements, especially when running. But centipedes are well adapted for walking and running, as rhythmic waves of leg movements alternate on either side of the body. Thus at any one time, the feet on one side of the body may be clustered together in movement, while those on the opposite side are spread apart to provide balance. Some burrowing species, such as those of the Geophilomorpha, have a different form of locomotion, with each foot able to move independently of the others. These centipedes usually have quite short feet that are used more as anchors in the soil rather than digging tools. The main digging force in these species is provided by the strong muscular body trunk, which pushes the body through the soil, much in the same manner as an earthworm.

The head betrays the highly predatory nature of these animals: extended antennae move constantly to detect potential prey which, once identified, is seized by the front pair of legs and held firmly by other, smaller pairs of claws. The front legs are not only sharply pointed but are also modified as poison claws, and can deliver a lethal injection of paralyzing fluid produced from special glands. The sense of vision is limited in most speciesprobably to the level of being able to differentiate between light and dark. Many species, however, lack eyes, especially the burrowing and cave-dwelling centipedes. Prey consists of small arthropods as well as earthworms, snails, and nematodes. Some of the larger tropical species have been known to eat frogs and small snakes.

Male and female centipedes are quite similar on the outside and the sexes are difficult to tell apart. Tropical species may breed throughout the year but temperate-dwelling centipedes breed in the spring and summer months, becoming less active during the cold winter period. Most species have a simple courtship routine, after which the pair may mate. Reproduction takes place outside of the body, with the male constructing a shallow web of silk-like strands on which he deposits a single package known as a spermatophore, which contains his sperm cells. The female then moves over the web and collects the spermatophore, which is transferred to the ovary, where fertilization occurs.

After carrying the eggs for some time the female may deposit them one by one in a protected place in the ground, for example, under a stone or in a rotten log. These eggs are covered with a glutinous secretion that helps them adhere to soil particles or other substances. Not all species lay their eggs in such a scattered fashion, however: some females create a simple nest in an enlarged cavity in a fallen log or similar suitable chamber; she remains to guard her eggs and even the larvae once they have hatched. The young later disperse and grow through a series of molt stages to reach adult size and sexual maturity.

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Centipedes

Centipedes

Centipedes (phylum Arthropoda, class Chilopoda) occur throughout the world in both temperate and tropical regions where they live in soil and humus and beneath fallen logs, bark , and stones. Because they lack a hard outer skeleton, centipedes are confined to moist environments in order to maintain water balance. Many species are therefore active only at night, remaining sheltered during the day. Most centipedes are active on the surface, but some of the more slender species are capable of burrowing in loose soils.

Four main orders of centipedes have been recognized with some 3,000 species described so far. Among these, there is considerable variation in size, color , and behavior . One of the largest species that has been recorded is Scolopendra gigantea from Latin America, which reaches a length of 10 in (26 cm). Most tropical species are distinguished by their bright colors (red, yellow, green, blue, or various combinations of these), while temperate-dwelling centipedes tend to be a reddish brown color. Many of these bold colors have evolved to deter potential predators. Such vivid yet simple colors advertise one of the following: that the animals can sting, inflict a painful or poisonous bite, produce a foul taste if eaten, or may cause an irritation to the skin. In the case of centipedes, all of these hold true: an inquisitive animal may receive a small injection of poison from special claws on the head, a painful pinch from the last pair of legs, or may be covered in foul acids produced from a series of glands along the body.

All centipedes are instantly recognizable by their segmented body, each segment of which bear a single pair of legs. The number of legs varies considerably according to species—from 15 to as many as 170 pairs. The legs, however, are not always of similar length: in some Scutigeromorpha species the posterior legs may be twice as long as those nearer the head. With so many legs, people have often wondered how centipedes manage to coordinate their movements, especially when running. But centipedes are well adapted for walking and running, as rhythmic waves of leg movements alternate on either side of the body. Thus at any one time, the feet on one side of the body may be clustered together in movement, while those on the opposite side are spread apart to provide balance. Some burrowing species, such as those of the Geophilomorpha, have a different form of locomotion, with each foot being able to move independently of the others. These centipedes usually have quite short feet that are used more as anchors in the soil rather than digging tools. The main digging force in these species is provided by the strong muscular body trunk, which pushes the body through the soil, much in the same manner as an earthworm.

The head betrays the highly predatory nature of these animals: extended antennae constantly move to detect potential prey which, once detected, is seized by the front pair of legs and firmly held by other, smaller pairs of claws. The front legs are not only sharply pointed but are also modified as poison claws and can deliver a lethal injection of paralyzing fluid produced from special glands. The sense of vision is limited in most species—probably to the level of being able to differentiate between light and dark. Many species, however, lack eyes, especially the burrowing and cave-dwelling centipedes. Prey consists of small arthropods as well as earthworms, snails , and nematodes. Some of the larger tropical species have been known to eat frogs and small snakes .

Male and female centipedes are quite similar on the outside and the sexes are difficult to tell apart. Tropical species may breed throughout the year but temperate-dwelling centipedes breed in the spring and summer months, becoming less active during the cold winter period. Most species have a simple courtship routine, after which the pair may mate. Reproduction takes place outside of the body, with the male constructing a shallow web of silk-like strands on which he deposits a single package known as a spermatophore, which contains his sperm cells. The female then moves over the web and collects the spermatophore which is transferred to the ovary, where fertilization occurs. After carrying the eggs for some time the female may deposit them one by one in a protected place in the ground, for example, under a stone or in a rotten log. These eggs are covered with a glutinous secretion which helps them to adhere to soil particles or other substances. Not all species lay their eggs in such a scattered fashion however: some females create a simple nest in an enlarged cavity in a fallen log, or similar suitable chamber, where she remains to guard her eggs and even the larvae once they have hatched. The young later disperse and grow through a series of molt stages to reach adult size and sexual maturity.

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