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Kraków (Cracow) City in s Poland. Founded in the 8th century, it became a residence of the Polish kings in the 12th century and subsequently capital of Poland. In 1795 it was ceded to Austria. After a period of independence (from 1815) it was restored to Austria in 1846. The city became part of Poland after World War I. Historic buildings include the Wawel Cathedral. The Jagiellonian University (1364) is one of the oldest in Europe. Today, Kraków is a manufacturing centre. Industries: chemicals, metals, machinery, printing. Pop. (1999) 740,666.