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Meissen

Meissen (mīs´ən), city (1994 pop. 33,075), Saxony, E central Germany, on the Elbe River. A porcelain manufacturing center since 1710, Meissen is famous for its delicate figurines (often called "Dresden" china); the industry is supported by local deposits of kaolin and potter's earth. Other manufactures include metal products, ceramics, and leather goods. Meissen was founded (929) by Henry of Saxony (later German king as Henry I), and it became (965) the seat of the margraviate of Meissen, where the Wettin dynasty of Saxony originated. The diocese of Meissen was founded in 968, was suppressed in 1581, and was restored in 1921 with its see at Bautzen. The Albrechtsburg (15th cent.), a large castle, dominates the city; it housed (1710–1864) the royal porcelain manufacture, begun by J. F. Böttger under the patronage of Elector Frederick Augustus I (Augustus II of Poland). Among the other noteworthy buildings of Meissen are the cathedral and the Church of St. Afra (both 13th–15th cent.).

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Meissen

Meissen fine hard-paste porcelain produced in Meissen, a city in Saxony, eastern Germany, since 1710, in Britain often called Dresden china. The name may be used allusively for the type of a woman whose looks evoke the delicacy of a Meissen figurine.

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Meissen

Meissen •Masson •flaxen, Jackson, klaxon, Sachsen, Saxon, waxen •Samson •Branson, Jansen, Manson, Nansen •arson, Carson, fasten, parson, sarsen •Bresson, delicatessen, Essen, lessen, lesson •Texan •Belsen, keelson, Nelson •Mendelssohn • Empson •Benson, ensign •Stetson •basin, caisson, chasten, diapason, hasten, Jason, mason •Bateson • handbasin • washbasin •Freemason • stonemason • Nielsen •Stevenson •christen, glisten, listen •Gibson, Ibsen •Blixen, Nixon, vixen •Nilsson, Stillson, Wilson •Nicholson • Simpson • Whitsun •Robinson • Acheson •Addison, Madison •Edison •Atkinson • Dickinson • Alison •Tennyson, venison •unison •caparison, comparison, garrison, Harrison •Ericsson • Morrison •archdiocesan, diocesan •jettison • Davisson •bison, Meissen, Tyson •Michelson • Robson •coxswain, oxen •Mommsen, Thompson •Johnson, Jonson, sponson, Swanson •Watson •coarsen, hoarsen, Orson •boatswain, bosun •Robeson • Jolson • moisten • loosen •Wolfson • Cookson • Hudson •Bunsen • tutsan •Grierson, Pearson •Culbertson • Richardson • Anderson •Jefferson • Ferguson • Rowlandson •Amundsen • Emerson • Jespersen •Saracen • Peterson • Williamson •person, worsen •Bergson • chairperson • layperson •salesperson • sportsperson •spokesperson

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Meissen

MEISSEN

MEISSEN , former margravate in Saxony, city near Dresden, Germany. Jews are mentioned as resident in the margravate of Meissen in the first decade of the 11th century. An organized community in the city of Meissen dates only from the 12th century, when a synagogue and a cemetery were maintained. The Jews lived at first in a Judendorf outside the city walls near the "Jewish gate." In 1265 Duke Henry the Illustrious enacted a liberal decree securing the Jewish community undisturbed participation in the city's life for some 80 years. During this period they made their living as pawnbrokers and moneylenders. Their communal life flourished, and they established the first Jewish school in Saxony. In 1330 Emperor Louis iv transferred the protection of the Jews in Meissen to Frederick the Grave of Thuringia. During the *Black Death persecutions of 1349 the community was destroyed. Although it was never reestablished within the city itself during medieval times, Jewish moneylenders and tradesmen remained as taxpayers within the margravate. A partial expulsion took place in 1411, but the decree was rescinded in 1415. In 1425 Frederick the Warlike granted them protection for a yearly fee; however, during the course of the Hussite Wars (see *Hussites), Frederick the Mild ordered the expulsion of all Jews from Meissen and Thuringia in 1430. They were not permitted entry into Saxony as a whole until the end of the 18th century. The modern community in the city of Meissen was founded in the 19th century, but it never achieved the status of its medieval counterpart. The city had a population of 32 Jews in 1890 that remained stable until 1904, but by 1933 all of them had been absorbed by *Dresden.

bibliography:

Germania Judaica, 1 (1963), 225–6; 2 (1968), 531–3, incl. bibl.; A. Leicht, Die Judengemeinde in Meissen (repr. 1890); A. Levy, Geschichte der Juden in Sachsen (1900), passim; S. Neufeld, Die Juden im Thueringisch-Saechsischen Gebiet waehrend des Mittelalters, 2 vols. (1917–27), passim; fjw, 323.

[Alexander Shapiro]

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