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Gotha

Gotha (gō´tä), city (1994 pop. 52,260), Thuringia, central Germany. It is a rail junction, and its manufactures include machinery, vehicles, textiles, chemicals, and soap. Gotha was known in the late 12th cent. In 1485 it passed to the Ernestine line of the house of Wettin and became (1640) the capital of the duchy of Saxe-Gotha (from 1826 to 1918, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha). Gotha has long been a center of geographical research and publishing. The well-known publishing house of Justus Perthes (founded in 1785 and now called Hermann Haack) began (1863) the publication of the Almanach de Gotha, an authoritative reference work on the royal houses and the nobility of numerous countries. In 1875 an important congress of the German Social Democratic Party was held in Gotha. Among the chief historic buildings of the city are the early 15th-century Church of St. Margaret; Friedenstein, a 17th-century ducal palace; and Friedrichstal Palace (18th cent.).

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Gotha

Gotha •Cather • naphtha •anther, panther, Samantha •Arthur, MacArthur, Martha •ether, Ibiza •Tabitha • Hiawatha • author • Gotha •Luther • Gunther • Agatha • Golgotha •Bertha, Jugurtha

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Gotha

GOTHA

GOTHA , city in Thuringia, Germany. Jews from Gotha are mentioned in *Cologne in 1250 and later in *Erfurt. Eight members of the community were killed in connection with a *blood libel in Weissensee in 1303. The community suffered during the *Black Death persecutions (1349) and again in 1391. Though the community disappeared after the persecutions of 1459–60, a mikveh (Judenbad) is mentioned in 1564 and 1614. Until 1848 no Jews were allowed to live in the duchy of Gotha but restricted trading was permitted. The community formed after 1848 increased from 95 in 1872/3, to 236 in 1880, and 372 in 1910 (0.9% of the total population). A synagogue was built in 1903. In 1932 the prosperous community of 350 members maintained a synagogue, school, cemetery, library, and six social and charitable organizations. On Nov. 10, 1938, the synagogue was burned down and 28 men of the community were sent to *Buchenwaldg. The 80 remaining Jews had been deported by 1939. The community was not reestablished after World War ii.

bibliography:

Germ Jud 1, 118–19; 2, 295–96; fjw, 372; pk.

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