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Lucerne, Lake of

Lake of Lucerne, Ger. Vierwaldstätter See, irregular-shaped lake, 44 sq mi (114 sq km), central Switzerland. It has a maximum depth of c.700 ft (210 m). The lake is fed and drained by the Reuss River. Surrounded by mountains, the Lake of Lucerne is noted for its scenic beauty; many resort towns are along its shores. Lucerne (Ger. Luzern), the principal lakeside city, is located at its northern outlet. The three arms of the Lake of Lucerne are called the Lake of Küssnacht (northern arm), the Lake of Alpnacht (southwestern), and the Lake of Uri (southeastern).

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Lucerne

Lucerne (Luzern) City on Lake Lucerne, central Switzerland. It joined the Swiss Confederation in 1332. In 1803, Lucerne became the capital of the French-inspired Helvetic Republic but rejoined the Confederation in 1848. It is an important summer resort and plays host to a music festival. It is the centre of the cereal-growing canton of Lucerne. Industries: engineering, metal goods, chemicals, textiles. Pop. (2000) 57,000.

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lucerne

lucerne plant resembling clover. XVII. — F. luzerne — modPr. luzerno, transf. use of luzerno glow-worm, with ref. to the shiny seeds.

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Lucerne

Lucerneadjourn, astern, Berne, burn, churn, concern, discern, earn, fern, fohn, kern, learn, Lucerne, quern, Sauternes, spurn, stern, Sterne, tern, terne, Traherne, turn, urn, Verne, yearn •Bayern • Blackburn • heartburn •Hepburn • Raeburn • Swinburne •Gisborne, Lisburn •sideburn • sunburn • Bannockburn •lady-fern • Vättern • extern •cittern, gittern •Comintern • taciturn •nocturn, nocturne •U-turn • upturn

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lucerne

lucerne The plant, Medicago sativa; essentially a forage crop, but eaten by man to a small extent. Also known as alfalfa.

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Lucerne

Lucerne (lōōsûrn´), Ger. Luzern (lōōtsĕrn´), canton (1993 pop. 331,800), 576 sq mi (1,492 sq km), central Switzerland. Drained by the Reuss and Kleine Emme rivers, Lucerne is mainly an agricultural and pastoral region, with orchards and large forested areas. It contains the Lake of Sempach and borders on the Lake of Lucerne. There are several resort areas, notably along the northwest shores of the Lake of Lucerne. The population is mainly German-speaking and Roman Catholic. Manufactures of the canton include machinery, textiles, metallurgic goods, electrical equipment, paper, and wood products. Boatbuilding and automobile assembly are also important. One of the Four Forest Cantons, its history is that of its capital, Lucerne (1990 pop. 59,115), which is on both banks of the Reuss where it flows out of the Lake of Lucerne. It is one of the largest resorts (mainly summer) in Switzerland and relies on tourism as the staple of its economy. A narrow-gauge rail line links Lucerne to the winter sports center of Engelberg. The city grew around the monastery of St. Leodegar, founded in the 8th cent. An important trade center on the St. Gotthard route, it became a Hapsburg possession in 1291. Lucerne joined the Swiss Confederation in 1332 and gained full freedom after the battle of Sempach (1386). It became capital of the Helvetic Republic in 1798. Lucerne was one of the chief towns of the Sonderbund (1845–47). The noted monument, the Lion of Lucerne, designed by A. B. Thorvaldsen, was erected (1820–21) in memory of the Swiss Guards killed in Paris in 1792. Other points of interest are a mainly 17th-century church (Hofkirche), the Glacier Garden, the cantonal buildings, and several museums. The city's Chapel Bridge, built in 1333 and purported to be Europe's oldest and longest (219 yards) covered wooden bridge, long stood as a city symbol. In 1993 a fire damaged or destroyed much of it; it reopened in 1994 following reconstruction. Lucerne hosts an annual music festival, which moved into a striking lakeside cultural center in 1997.

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Lucerne

LUCERNE

LUCERNE (Ger. Luzern ), city in the canton of the same name, central Switzerland. Jews were first mentioned in Lucerne in 1252, when the terms of their protection were defined. During the 14th century, a fine was prescribed for anyone perpetrating a blood libel against the Jews without previously notifying the council. A regulation of 1310 deals with the sale of meat from animals slaughtered by Jews. The Jews, who were authorized to possess real estate, were principally engaged in moneylending. During the massacres following the *Black Death (1348–49) the community came to an end; the town was compelled to indemnify the duke of Austria for the losses he had thus incurred. In 1381, there were once more Jews living in Lucerne. A few Jewish physicians practiced there during the 15th and 16th centuries. In the mid-17th century, Jewish livestock merchants again appeared at the local markets. Some Jews, mainly from Alsace and *Endingen/Lengnau, visited markets in the canton Lucerne in the 18th and 19th centuries, though not without arousing a certain degree of opposition.

The local community was founded in 1866, but never developed to any considerable extent. In 1912, a synagogue was erected in the style of the Orthodox synagogue of Frankfurt/Friedberger Anlage. The leading family was the Erlangers, immigrating from South-Baden Gailingen. Abraham Erlanger became Orthodox and gave the community its special imprint already in the 1920s. In 1936 the oratory was devastated by Swiss Fascists. From 1958 there was a small Lithuanian-type yeshivah ketanah in Lucerne moving later to nearby Kriens. For some years a *Beth Jacob seminary for teaching Orthodox girls existed. The community became more Orthodox (ḥaredi) in the 1980s, so that some of its members left and joined communities in Zurich. In the Lucerne canton 399 persons declared themselves as Jewish in 2000; 200 were members of the community (2004).

bibliography:

Schweizerischer Israelitischer Gemeindebund, Festschrift zum 50-jaehrigen Bestehen (1954); A. Weldler-Steinberg, Geschichte der Juden in der Schweiz, 2 vols. (1966/70), index. add. bibliography: Germ Jud, 2 (1968); Germ. Jud, 3:2 (1998), index, s.v.Luzern; R.U. Kaufmann, Juden in Luzern (1984); E. Hurwitz, Bocksfuss, Schwanz und Hörner, (1986, memoirs); R. Erlanger, Stammbaum und Chronik der Familie Abraham Erlanger: ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Juden in Luzern und Gailingen (1998).

[Simon R. Schwarzfuchs /

Uri Kaufmann (2nd ed.)]

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