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Edirne

Edirne (ĕdēr´nĕ), formerly Adrianople (ā´drēənō´ pəl), city (1990 pop. 102,325), capital of Edirne prov., NW Turkey, in Thrace. It is the commercial center for a farm region where grains, fruits, and tobacco are grown and cattle and sheep are raised. The city was founded (c.AD 125) by Hadrian, the Roman emperor, on the site of Uscudama. Of great strategic importance and strongly fortified, the city has had a turbulent history. The defeat (378) of Emperor Valens by the Visigoths at Adrianople left Greece open to invasion by barbarian tribes. Later conquered by the Avars, the Bulgarians, and the Crusaders, the city passed to the Ottoman Turks in 1361 and was the residence of the Ottoman sultans until the conquest of Constantinople in 1453. Russia captured the city twice (1829 and 1878) during the Russo-Turkish Wars. It fell (1913) to Bulgaria in the First Balkan War but was restored to Turkey after the Second Balkan War. It passed to Greece by the Treaty of Sèvres (1920), but was again restored to Turkey by the Treaty of Lausanne (1923). The city's many mosques include the great mosque of Selim II (completed 1574). The city was also called Orestia by Byzantine writers.

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Edirne

EDIRNE

Turkish province in Europe and city on the Bulgarian border, 209 kilometers (130 miles) northwest of Istanbul.

The city of Edirne (in English, Adrianople) was founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian in 125 c.e.. It was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in the fourteenth century and served as their capital between 1361 and 1453. Between 1829 and 1923, the city was occupied by foreign forces several times: by Russia in 1829 and 1879; by Bulgarian forces in 1913; and by Greece from 1919 to 1922. The modern city is a manufacturing center and a commercial center for western Thrace (European Turkey). It has notable tourist sites, including ruins of its ancient and medieval walls, and three mosques and a covered bazaar that date from the fifteenth century. According to the 2000 census, the population of Edirne city was 230,908; that of Edirne province was 402,606.


Bibliography


Shaw, Stanford. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. New York and Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 19761977.

eric hooglund

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Edirne

Edirne (Adrianople) Fortified city at the confluence of the Meric and Tundzha rivers. Rebuilt by the Roman emperor Hadrian (c.ad 125) as Adrianopolis, it was the scene of a Roman defeat by the Visigoths in 378. Edirne was capital of Ottoman Turkey from 1361–1453. Captured by the Russians in 1829–79 and the Bulgarians in 1913, Edirne was ceded to Greece in 1920. It was returned to Turkey in 1923. It is an agricultural trading centre. Industries: textiles and tanning. Pop. (1990) 102,300.

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